Anglo-Caribbean

Disclaimers:

  • These charts are NOT meant to be taken as an absolute or definitive display of ethnic origins for modernday populations!
  • Ethnic labels given by Europeans do NOT per se reflect how the slaves would have self-identified themselves! (see this article for more discussion)
  • Take note of the sample size, time period, region and any other details given to familiarize yourself with the CONTEXT of the chart!
  • Even if limited in scope, valuable information can still be obtained if you look for the patterns!
  • Sorry for all the exclamation marks 😉 It’s just that i’ve seen these kind of charts being misinterpreted so many times, not only online but also by trained historians. Which is a shame really because misleading conclusions can easily be avoided if you just take these charts for what they are: a randomized subset of slaves who might provide us with extra clues about the ethnic composition of other slaves during a given time period and for a given place/region. All depending on how representative the samples might have been.

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Antigua

Moravian Church Registers Antigua 1757-1833
For more details read “Antigua’s African Origins According To Moravian Church Records

Antigua (1757-1833)

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Guyana

Slave Census Berbice 1819
For more details read  “Guyanese Slave Census of 1819 , less specified but still representative?

Birthplaces of slaves Berbicea

Birthplaces of slaves Berbiceb

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Jamaica

Africanisms in Jamaican Patois
For more details read  “Words of African Origin in Jamaican Patois

 

African lexicon in Jamaica (2012) (fig. 6.1)

African lexicon in Jamaica (2012) (table 6.5)

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Jamaica

Runaway slaves advertisements 1718-1817
For more details read  “Ethnic Origins of Jamaican Runaway Slaves

Ethnic Origins of Jamaican Runaway Slaves Tracing African Roots

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(click to enlarge)

Chambers (2007) - Major Diasporic Ethnies among Jamaican Runaways, 1718-1817

Source: “The Links of a Legacy: Figuring the Slave Trade to Jamaica.” Chambers, D. In Annie Paul, ed., Caribbean Culture: Soundings on Kamau Brathwaite. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2007, pp.287-312.

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(click to enlarge)

Chambers (2007) - Major Diasporic Ethnies by imputed Coastal Provenances, 1718-1817

Source: “The Links of a Legacy: Figuring the Slave Trade to Jamaica.” Chambers, D. In Annie Paul, ed., Caribbean Culture: Soundings on Kamau Brathwaite. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2007, pp.287-312.

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Saint Kitts & Anguilla

Slave Census Saint Kitts 1817
For more details read “St. Kitts & Anguilla Slave Census, least informative of African roots?

Birthplaces Slaves St Kitts, 1817

Slave Census Anguilla 1827

Birthplaces of slaves Anguilla 1827

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Saint Lucia

Slave Census Saint Lucia 1815
For more details read “St. Lucia Slave Census of 1815 , reflecting English or French Slave Trade Patterns?

Birthplaces of slaves St Luciab

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Trinidad

Slave Census 1813
See also “Trinidad’s Slave Census of 1813 – Representative of African Ethnic Origins?

Paul Lovejoy Ethnic origins of Slaves 1813 (part1)

Paul Lovejoy Ethnic origins of Slaves 1813 (part2)

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Virgin Islands (US)

Oldendorp survey 1767/1768
See also ” Virgin Islands Roots (part 2)

Oldendorp Nations

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8 gedachten over “Anglo-Caribbean

    • From what i’ve read Surinamese Maroons should have multiple origins across Western Africa, but Congo could be a significant part of their ancestry indeed. Their cultural retention is very fascinating, many distinct influences from Ghana, Benin and also Congo can clearly be recognized. I intend to blog about Surinam and the Dutch Caribbean, so in the future there will be a separate section of charts for them.

      In the meanwhile you can check out this overview which shows the African influence on Surinamese languages, the number of African words is very impressive, probably the highest in the Americas! Bantu words are 28% while Kwa languages (both Ghana & Benin) provided 47%.

      This website , Slave Trade to Surinam, is also very informative.

      Like

  1. Wonderful blog. I share your passion, and interests. With St Lucia, Breen suggests Martinique traders controlled the trade. I still can’t work out where on the Island the British would have disembarked the slaves. Or how, alternatively, the re-exports operated: were slaves brought over on slave ships or simple boats? Lastly, Delphinus argues most of the slaves were actually from the Senegambian region and the hinterlands during French period, and extending into the Malian hinterlands.

    Liked by 1 persoon

    • Thanks for commenting James! Great to hear you share the same interests. Recently a book appeared about the intercolonial slave trade which might have some answers. I haven’t read it yet, but i’m about to read an article by the same author. I will let you know if i come across anything specific about St. Lucia.

      “Final Passages: The Intercolonial Slave Trade of British America, 1619-1807” by Gregory E. O’Malley.

      Btw you might be interested that just the other day i created a new page featuring the AncestryDNA results of people from the West Indies. One of them is from St. Vincent and he indeed had a pronounced “Mali” score, however it might not be the most typical outcome for West Indians.

      https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/anglo-caribbean-results

      Like

  2. Geat blog. I was wondering if you had any data on Barbados? I know there was a lot of slave trade between Barbados and Charleston, S.C. and I am wondering if the results are similar.

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    • Thanks Dem , glad you like the blog. For Barbados i only have the slave trade data. i wish i had more specific data also on ethnic groups being documented there, but sofar i haven’t come across anything. If anyone reading this knows something useful please comment 🙂

      Barbados is indeed an interesting place to study because it was heavily involved in intercolonial trade but also because its population was one of the earliest ones in the West Indies to show natural growth, which implies that for Bajans tracing their African roots they will generally have to look into earlier timeperiods.

      Here’s the link for the slavevoyages data (scroll down), it has a useful comparison with SC, VA and Jamaica. Keep in mind it’s only measuring Trans Atlantic voyages directly from Africa and not what happened afterwards. It might be that some of the “Benin/Togo” scores seen for AA’s might ultimately derive from Barbados:

      “Benin/Togo region”

      Liked by 1 persoon

  3. Would you happen to have information on the blacks in Grenada? I do know on Carriacou (sister-isle to mainland Grenada) most blacks are Temne people. But as for Grenada itself, I have no clue. Very curious about that.

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    • Yes the Temne connection for Carriacou is very remarkable! However i’m doubtful if such exceptional African retention among a small group of people would also be indicative of the African origins for the majority of the Carriacou population. I remember reading there are several documented refernces to other African ethnic groups as well. Some of which also appearing as the African Nations in the Big Drum Dance. I might blog about this some day in more detail as i find it very fascinating.

      I am also intending to do an update of this page eventually. I will then provide more details on several AncestryDNA results i have collected from Grenada. In the meanwhile you can already consult this chart based on the Slave voyages Database. Keep in mind though that inter-colonial slave trade as well as inter-island migration in later timeperiods is not being accounted for.

      Like

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