Africa

Disclaimers:

  • These charts are NOT meant to be taken as an absolute or definitive display of ethnic origins for modernday populations!
  • Ethnic labels given by Europeans do NOT per se reflect how the slaves would have self-identified themselves! (see this article for more discussion)
  • Take note of the sample size, time period, region and any other details given to familiarize yourself with the CONTEXT of the chart!
  • Even if limited in scope, valuable information can still be obtained if you look for the patterns!
  • Sorry for all the exclamation marks 😉 It’s just that i’ve seen these kind of charts being misinterpreted so many times, not only online but also by trained historians. Which is a shame really because misleading conclusions can easily be avoided if you just take these charts for what they are: a randomized subset of slaves who might provide us with extra clues about the ethnic composition of other slaves during a given time period and for a given place/region. All depending on how representative the samples might have been.

Cape Verde

For many more charts & discussion follow this link: http://www.cvraiz.com/?page_id=66

M.Torrao & Soares - Slave Origins from Inventories 1610-1758

Source: “Mande Through the Cape Verde Islands (15th to 18th Centuries)”, (Soares and Torrao, 2007), Mande Studies, 9, 135-147.

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S. Buehnen - Samples of Upper Guinean slaves

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African origins captives onboard slave ship sailing from Cape Verde to Cuba (1572)
For more details read  “Documented African Roots of Dominicans

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San Pedro (1572)

A Luso-African Model for the Social History of the Spanish Caribbean, c. 1570-1640 (Wheat, 2010)

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Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856
For more details read  Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856 (part 1) & Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856 (part 2)

***(vf=male & female, v=male)

A. Carreira - Census 1856 (Ethnias)

Source: “Cabo Verde: formação e extinção de uma sociedade escravocrata (1460-1878)”, António Carreira (1972)

***(vf=male & female, v=male)

A. Carreira - Census 1856 B

Source: “Cabo Verde: formação e extinção de uma sociedade escravocrata (1460-1878)”, António Carreira (1972)

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A. Carreira - Census 1856 (Regional)

Source: “Cabo Verde: formação e extinção de uma sociedade escravocrata (1460-1878)”, António Carreira (1972)

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Bissau, Cacheu, Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856 (combined)
For more details read  Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856 (part 2)

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Hawthorne 1856 Census (Bissau, Cacheu,CV) GB Coastal Zone

Source: “Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves. Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400-1900″, Walter Hawthorne (2003)

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Hawthorne 1856 Census (Bissau, Cacheu,CV) Interior Upper Guinea Coast

Source: “Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves. Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400-1900″, Walter Hawthorne (2003)

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Hawthorne 1856 Census (Bissau, Cacheu,CV) Senegal, Guinea and Sierra Leone Coastal Zones

Source: “Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves. Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400-1900″, Walter Hawthorne (2003)

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____________________________________

Nigeria

Bight of Biafra ancestry
For more details read  “The Igbo Connection for Virginia & Virginia-Descendants

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Chambers (2002) - Table1, Estimated Percentage of Igbo captives

Source: “Rejoinder – The Significance of Igbo in the Bight of Biafra Slave-Trade- A Rejoinder to Northrup’s Myth Igbo ” (D.B. Chambers, 2002)

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Chambers (2002) - Table 3, Estimated Percentage of Igbo captives per slave port (1701-1810)

Source: “Rejoinder – The Significance of Igbo in the Bight of Biafra Slave-Trade- A Rejoinder to Northrup’s Myth Igbo ” (D.B. Chambers, 2002)

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Chambers (2002) - Table 5,Frequency of Igbo among Biafran Africans in the Diaspora (1720-1820)(cropped)

Source: “Rejoinder – The Significance of Igbo in the Bight of Biafra Slave-Trade- A Rejoinder to Northrup’s Myth Igbo ” (D.B. Chambers, 2002)

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Northrup (2000) - Table 2, estimated ethnic breakdown Bight of Biafra departures

Source: “Igbo and myth Igbo- Culture and ethnicity in the Atlantic World, 1600–1850″(David Northrup, 2000)

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Hall (2005) Bight of Biafra breakdown for Anglo-Caribbean

Source: “Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links” by Gwendolyn Midlo Hall (2005)

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Lovejoy et al. - Table1.2 Destinations of Africans from the Bight Biafra

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Sierra Leone

Ethnic Origins of Recaptives in Sierra Leone 1848sl

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