Countries of Ancestry

The Countries of Ancestry (CoA) feature used to be one of the main tools on 23&me to learn more about your African ancestry (aside from any other type of ancestry you might have of course). For more details see also this ISOGG entry:

Countries of Ancestry (formerly known as Ancestry Finder) was a feature of the 23andMe Personal Genome Service. It was accessed from Ancestry Labs on the 23andMe user interface. Ancestry Finder Lab utilized the data collected from 23andMe customers in the survey entitled, “Where Are You From?” to chart the birth country of your autosomal DNA matches’ grandparents. The purpose was to attempt to give an overview of your ethnic origins by exploring those of your matches. The feature was made available to all 23andMe customers on July 8, 2010. It was retired in November 2015 when 23andMe began to roll out the launch of a new website.” (source: ISOGG)

The CoA tool was largely dismantled after 23andme introduced its customers to a “new experience“… It has been dearly missed by many ever since. Myself included. Because of its various controls the CoA tool allowed a great deal of flexibility in exploring your DNA matches. Seeing all the self reported birth places of your matches grandparents at one glance could firstly serve to confirm your own known background. As your own ancestral nationalities (incl. USA) would usually be top ranking. But almost always the CoA overview also hinted at unknown and surprising potential connections. This last aspect probably made it most popular and even addictive for many. As always proper interpretation was crucial to avoid being mislead. In particular considering that:

  • Technically speaking the CoA tool was not reporting your own ancestry! Rather it was listing the self-reported nationalities of your matches grandparents. This first of all created the possibility of erroneous entry in 23andme’s customer survey. And even more importantly this type of customer generated data could also be flawed because of mixed origins for your matches beyond two generations or beyond their knowledge.
  • Also of course nationality does not equate ethnicity. As many countries are in fact multi-ethnic. For example a match with 4 self reported grandparents from Angola could very well be ethnically Portuguese due to Portugal’s longstanding colonial presence in Angola.
  • The MRCA (most recent common ancestor) shared between you and your matches will therefore not per se have the same background as your matches themselves. Especially due to migrations there are usually several possible ancestral scenario’s to consider when you get “matched” with someone. Assumptions about the direction of gene flow may be proven wrong after follow-up research. Context is everything and historical plausibility combined with solid genealogical research should be leading instead of wishful thinking.
  • For matches whose shared DNA segment are smaller than 10cM there exists an increased possibility of false positives. In other words you may not actually be related to these reported matches! This could already be the case for matches with a shared segment size of in between 10cM and the official 7cM threshold 23andme applies for determining your DNA relatives. The odds of your matches being legitimate IBD (Identical by Descent) will be quite small especially for matches with a minimal segment size of in between 5cM and 7cM. See also:
  • The database composition of 23andme’s CoA tool greatly influenced the outcomes. Because 23andme is an USA based company it’s only natural its customers are also overwhelmingly American and mostly of European descent. Luckily the USA is home to many 1st or 2nd generation migrants from all over the world which still enabled a fairly global representation within the CoA tool. Nonetheless because of this skewed database factor for Afro-Diasporans there was always an inherent bias towards being matched with white Americans rather than actual Africans. Especially in the early days (2010-2015) when DNA testing was not yet as popular as it now is among minorities. While in particular African DNA testers were very rare (see this link for an estimate made in 2011).

For a more detailed discussion on how to interpret one’s (African) DNA matches see also:

 

Countries of Ancestry results for a Cape Verdean (set at 5cM & 10cM, excl. USA)

***(click to enlarge)

JS @5cM

Notice how Cape Verde is correctly displayed as top ranking country. However aside from Morocco no other African countries are being shown. While Cape Verde’s shared Iberian ancestral connections are properly represented by Portugal, Spain and Latin American countries. Such a skewed outcome towards shared European lineage matches was pretty standard for other Afro-Diasporans as well. African DNA matches being prized rarities.

***(click to enlarge)

JS @10cM

Basically the same ranking patterns being repeated. But with a higher degree of reliability because of the 10cM threshold. Due to historical plausibility shared Iberian/Portuguese lineage seems to be indicated firstmost. With MRCA’s not originating in Cape Verde but rather in Portugal or Spain. Although shared African lineage might theoretically also be a possibility in some cases.

***

Despite all of the unknown variables involved I have always felt that with careful interpretation you can still obtain a great deal of informational value from 23andme’s CoA tool. I myself was able to connect with my first Cape Verdean DNA cousin through my CoA results (way back in 2010 already!). Also several Afro-Diasporans were able to find their very first African DNA matches by way of CoA. Going beyond individual results I have always been fascinated by the potential this CoA tool could have to uncover some generalized matching patterns between Africans and Afro-Diasporans. Being very anxious to learn if these patterns roughly corroborate what we know from historical sources and cultural retention. See also:

I have been gathering African testresults on 23andme for several years now. Originally to gain a greater understanding of the African categories included in 23andme’s Ancestry Composition which was being updated in 2012/2013. Thanks to the kind willingness of people to share their results I was able to compile some very sketchy “population averages” which can still be seen in this online spreadsheet. The individual results can be seen by clicking on the tabs on the bottom of the sheet. The screenshots of their results have also been featured on these blog pages:

When 23andme announced in 2015 they were going to discontinue their CoA tool I quickly decided to make screenshots of all the African profiles which had been shared with me. Not sure at the time how to make use of this potentially vibranium data set. Since then my interest in 23andme waned strongly because of my disappointment in their “new experience“…

In April 2018 however 23andme’s Ancestry Composition was finally being updated or rather expanded by the Recent Ancestor Locations (see upcoming blog post for review). This addition basically appears to be a stripped down version of 23andme’s former CoA tool (which still was much more informative…). Inspired by this flashback I am now publishing an overview of CoA results for 75 Africans: highlighting their Afro-Diasporan matches. But also showcasing their intra-African matches. Despite being somewhat outdated I do believe these African CoA results can still reveal relevant tendencies in DNA matching. I intend to compare these preliminary matching patterns eventually with my more recent findings for Africans who tested on Ancestry.

 

Survey results for 75 Africans

***(click to enlarge)

@overview

***

Methodology

  • The layout of my main survey findings above was partially inspired by the dots which are being used in 23andme’s latest update/addition: Recent Ancestor Locations.
  • The number of coloured dots indicate the match strength of the USA matches being reported for my African survey participants. The average of the CoA scores, “percent of genome covered”, for USA (set at 7cM) serving as a basis for this match strength. Zero dots implying that no USA matches were being reported (set at 7cM).
  • On average a CoA score of 0.1% seems to have equaled one single match in most cases. I applied a somewhat arbitrarily defined range of CoA %’s for each dot as I wanted it to be illustrative of similar ranking firstmost.
    • For one dot: CoA% > 0% & CoA% < 0.5%
    • Two dots: CoA% > 0.5% & CoA% < 1.5%
    • Three dots: CoA% > 1.5% & CoA% < 2%
    • Four dots: CoA% > 2% & CoA% < 4%
    • Five dots:  CoA% > 4%
  •  I verified the background of all my African survey participants by way of their ancestry composition on 23andme, surnames and whichever other ancestral details they kindly shared with me. I am not fully certain about their ethnic background in all cases. See also remarks below each individual screenshot.
  • I have sorted the results according to several subcontinental regions and I also subdivided the West African results into Upper Guinea & Lower Guinea in order to obtain a more in-depth overview of the matching patterns.
  • Brazil is included in the Latino matches and Belize, Haiti, Guyana & Surinam are included in the Caribbean matches.
  • I did not specify CoA matches set at 5cM in the overview above because these smaller matches are generally deemed to be unreliable. However I do think they can have informational value (when interpreted correctly) and therefore I do mention them below while posting each individual result. At times I could not list all of the 5cM matches however. This is due to limitations of the screenshots I made at the time (no scrolling enabled :D.
  • For the individual results below I also mention the number of 10cM segments being reported. I was able to count these segments because of the chromosome view incorporated in the CoA tool. One of the main aspects that made it such a useful tool! To keep the screenshots in a manageable format I have however cut out these chromosome views which showed the locations of each shared segment. The chromosome view also provided a direct link to your match’s profile (if public). See this screenshot for a complete view:
  • I have only included the CoA results reported for matches with 4 grandparents from the same country. Usually more matches appeared when a more relaxed setting was chosen (1 grandparent from same country). Often also relevant and interesting ones. But the mixed background of these matches tends to complicate any straightforward interpretation.

Considerations 

  • Keep in mind that this survey is based on CoA results which I screenshotted in November 2015. Therefore they firstmost represent a snapshot of 23andme’s customer database in 2015. Because of ever increasing popularity of DNA testing these CoA results would naturally look different when calculated today. Although I strongly suspect most of the matching patterns would still broadly be the same.
  • In 2015 the total number of 23andme’s customers reached 1 million (in 2018 it is 5 million!). However the database available to the CoA tool only consisted of a subset of 23andme’s customers: people who had filled in the birth locations of their grandparents in 23andme’s survey. Furthermore only a small part of these people were of African descent. I have not come across any detailed numbers. However in 2014/2015 a study was published by 23andme based on the admixture results of  5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans. So I suppose this could count as a baseline. See also:
  • The matching patterns I am describing are therefore based on 75 African individuals and their matches within a customer database which probably included atleast 13.000 people of African descent (combining African Americans and Latino’s) and possibly even somewhat more (unknown number of Africans & Caribbeans + database increase in 2015). Obviously individual variation will still be relevant but given that 75 Africans are being compared for similar DNA with thousands of Afro-descendants, the implications are already quite significant I would say. In particular for African Americans, presumably the biggest subgroup of Afro-Diasporans in the CoA tool.
  • However not all of the USA matches are African Americans per se. Theoretically speaking they could also be persons who happened to have 4 USA born grandparents but beyond that their family could be from elsewhere. Also some white Americans might actually be included in the USA matches!
  • Certain African countries will tend to be overrepresented in 23andme’s customer database. Notably English speaking countries such as Nigeria and Ghana. While Portuguese or French speaking countries such as Angola and Benin are underrepresented for the most part. This situation creates more chances of being matched with for example your Nigerian lineage but does not invalidate that you might still also have Beninese or Angolan ancestry in addition. This is mostly due to these countries’ migrant presence in the US/UK (see this graph for biggest groups in USA in 2015). This is also reflected in the composition of my 75 African survey participants, in which Nigerians (n=17) & Ghanaians (n=10) clearly formed the greatest subgroups. Although actually my survey’s coverage across the continent is still already quite impressive. But just not so proportionally speaking.
  • In the CoA tool it was possible to select matches of various segmentsize. Ranging from 5cM to 15cM. Generally speaking the 10cM threshold was recommended because of increasing chances of false positives for smaller matches. I have however chosen to center my survey mostly on the 7cM threshold because I found it most informative and still reasonably in line with IBD requirements as 23andme also uses this threshold for their DNA relatives tool. I have however still kept track of the 10cM matches as well. Because they will indicate more robust matching patterns.
  • Matches with shared segments of 15cM and higher were rare. Although I did encounter such cases a few times. This is to be expected as generally speaking Afro-Diasporans will have far more African MRCA’s from the 1700’s and earlier, rather than from the 1800’s. Resulting in diluted and fragmented DNA segments for the most part. See also:
  • Even within the 5cM-7cM range some genuine IBD matches might therefore appear. But you will have to judge the plausibility on a case by case basis.  Then again most of these matches are likely to be false positives: either IBS (Identical by State) or IBP (Identical by Population). Socalled population matches are more common than many people might expect. Basically ancient shared origins leads to a great degree of genetic overlap in neighbouring and/or ethno-linguistically related populations. Which can result in identical DNA segments being detected. This circumstance operates to create DNA matches from allover! Even when technically speaking you are not related to such DNA matches in a genealogically meaningful time frame (let’s say 500 years). I have observed this myself for both Europeans and Africans.  Also several DNA studies have already brought such generic matching patterns to light. Greater awareness of migrations and ethno-linguistic relatedness within Africa is therefore required for proper interpretation of these smaller matches. See also:
  • While verifying the background of each survey participant I came across a few persons who showed minor European admixture. Mostly from Upper Guinea, but also one Ghanaian and one South African. These European admixture scores go beyond possibly noise level (<0.1%).  And at times they are quite substantial given that 23andme’s algorithm for its Ancestry Composition tool seems to be well equipped to pick up on minor amounts of continental admixture. Intriguingly also my Fula and Malagasy survey participants all showed some minor European admixture1. Therefore it cannot be ruled out that some of the matches being reported might be due to shared European lineage. Given the inherent bias of 23andme’s customer database towards European DNA this could even result in a disproportionate number of matches despite the minimal amount of detected European lineage.
  • It is often said that admixture analysis should be taken with a grain of salt. Rightfully so as it can only provide (informed) estimates about your ancestral make-up. Then again valuable insights are still to be gained when these estimates are interpreted correctly. As a cautionary measure we might also say that DNA matches are not to be taken at face value either. As in fact they can sometimes be misleading as well when there is a lack of relevant context or when you are dealing with smaller matches (< 7cM).  As always it pays to use scrutiny and discretion in stead of jumping to conclusions or putting all your eggs in just one basket! Be critical of the claims made by DNA testing companies. But at the same time aim for maximizing informational value despite imperfections. Combining your admixture results with your DNA matches will often lead to enhanced insights and complementarity. Add in proper historical & genealogical research and your multi-faceted strategy to Trace African Roots will be optimized and poised for verifiable breakthrough discoveries!

Main Findings

Below I will provide an overview of the main findings I am able to pick up on from my survey resultsAlso for each subregion of Africa I will list my observations about what stood out the most to me. I will eventually compare notes with my findings for Africans and their matching patterns on Ancestry in more detail. This overview is just part of an exploratory exercise and not meant to be conclusive. Obviously everything I have already listed above is also to be kept in mind! 

  •  The largest degree of match strength is being obtained for West Africa, both Upper & Lower Guinea. This goes first of all for matches with the USA but also for matches with Latino’s and Caribbeans. A lesser and more variable degree of match strength (but still clearly detectable) is reported for Central & Southern Africa. While hardly any Afro-Diasporan matches were reported for my East African survey participants. This outcome seems to align well with both historically documented and genetically confirmed origins for the Trans-Atlantic Afro-Diaspora. These ancestral origins being principally from West Africa & Central Africa and to a much smaller degree also from Southeast Africa. For more details see:
  • The number of 10cM+ matches was rather high. And mostly confirming the matching patterns when set at 7cM. Perhaps tellingly not a single match of 10cM+ was reported for my East African survey participants. At least no matches with Afro-Diasporans. The least number of matches of any size and from anywhere was being reported for my survey participants from South Sudan (0x) and Uganda (1x).
  • In regards to the match strength with the USA the three top ranking countries are Guinea (Fula), Madagascar and Nigeria (Igbo). Especially one Fula person from Guinea as well as two Malagasy survey participants received an amazing number of USA matches. Often also with a large shared segment size. Their minor European admixture might be a factor (see considerations). But I suspect not decisively so as the shared segments I was able to verify myself were either African or Asian in chromosome view.  My Igbo survey participants also received many USA matches, strikingly more so than Nigerians of other ethnic background in my survey.
  • Even if caution is warranted, this outcome seems to already indicate widespread dispersal of Fula, Malagasy and Igbo lineage within the African American genepool. Which would be perfectly plausible also from a historical perspective. However I strongly suspect that the frequency of DNA matches from a certain place/ethnic group may not always correlate with autosomal contribution, proportionally speaking. In other words just because my Fula and Malagasy survey participants seem to be extra “matchy” with African Americans does not right away imply that the Fula & the Malagasy represent the biggest ancestral components for African Americans (to be verified by admixture analysis). For the Igbo such a case could arguably already be made. Based on both historical and genetic evidence. But especially for the Malagasy a more subdued & diluted overall ancestral share is to be expected (even if still significant and clearly detectable). Certainly lower than for example the Congolese or Angolan input in the average African breakdown for African Americans. See also:
  • Intra-African matches were reported quite frequently for most of my African survey participants. Even when the number of Africans in CoA’s database must have been very small! This includes matches from the same African country, matches from neighbouring African countries and in a few cases matches from unexpected countries in other parts of Africa, geographically far removed. When set at 5cM these presumably population matches become even more apparent. This outcome may hold some far-reaching implications. Afterall if a Kenyan is able to get a Zimbabwean match seemingly due to the genetic legacy of the Bantu Expansion from many centuries or even several millennia ago might then also likewise African Americans receive Kenyan matches due to shared Bantu origins from Central Africa (Angola/Congo)? In a recently published research paper it was revealed that Angolans were having IBD matches with people from South Africa and also from Kenya/Uganda!

 

Below screenshots are all taken from people who have kindly agreed to share their results with me2. For which I am very grateful! They were either born in the African country highlighted or have both parents from that country. These are obviously first of all individual results and very limited in number because there were only very few Africans yet who had tested with 23andme in 2015.  Undoubtedly with more African 23andme CoA results available you might see different or additional matching patterns. Still I think in most cases these screenshots below would be representative to some degree for how other people from their nationality or ethnic group would have scored hypothetically speaking .

 

**West Africa (Upper Guinea)**

  Observations

  • All parts of the  Afro-Diaspora (Trans Atlantic) are well represented. But aside from the USA especially for Hispanic Americans this area seems somewhat prominent. Even if mostly expressed in distant and smaller matches (<7cM).
  • The Guinean (Fula) profile really stands out in the number of Afro-Diasporan matches as well as the impressive segment size with many of these matches. Only equalled by the two Malagasy profiles.
  • Interestingly the only Cape Verdean match >7cM in my survey is appearing for a Mandinga person from Guinea Bissau. Not very surprising perhaps given the overwhelming Upper Guinean origins of Cape Verdeans. On the other hand Cape Verdeans have also been settling in Upper Guinea for centuries already, so the geneflow could actually also be the other way around! I have also seen a few other West African countries appear in the CoA results of my Cape Verdean DNA cousins. These matches tend to be smaller than 7cM though. See this link for an overview:
  • Intra-African matches are rather frequent, especially when also including matches <7cM. Usually just covering neighbouring countries. But at times also more distant countries are mentioned. For this area of Africa it seems that both the Krio and the Fula migrations might explain some of the more puzzling (at first sight) connections. Such as Nigeria being listed several times. Quite possibly indicating Hausa-Fulani individuals with distant Upper Guinean origins. But also perhaps shared Yoruba or Igbo lineage due to Liberated Africans being settled initially in Sierra Leone & Liberia but later on moving on to other West African countries as well. See also:

Senegal 1 

***(click to enlarge)SEN1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname): Wolof? Perhaps also distant & diluted European lineage as suggested by a 1.5% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is also plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment)
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Trinidad & Tobago, Puerto Rico, Nigeria, Mexico, Haiti, Grenada

Senegal 2

SEN2 (7cM)

***(click to enlarge)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname): Wolof? Perhaps also distant & diluted European lineage as suggested by a 1.9% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is also plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (3 segments)
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Gambia, Spain, Haiti, Guinea, Puerto Rico, Mexico

Senegal 3

***(click to enlarge)

SEN3 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Wolof & Fula. Perhaps also distant & diluted European lineage as suggested by a 5.2% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is also plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (2 segments), Haiti (1 segment)
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Nigeria, Haiti, Guinea, Venezuela

Gambia 1

***(click to enlarge)

GAM1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Aku/Krio & Fula? Perhaps also distant & diluted European lineage as suggested by a 3.0% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is also plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (5 segments), Nigeria, Dominican Republic
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Guyana, Sierra Leone, Mexico, Liberia, Guinea (and more).

Gambia 2

***(click to enlarge)

GAM2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Mandinka? Perhaps also (very) diluted European lineage as suggested by a 0,6% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is also plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: none
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Puerto Rico, Nigeria, Jamaica.

Gambia 3

***(click to enlarge)

GAM3 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Serahule & Fula? Perhaps also distant & diluted European lineage as suggested by a 1.9% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is also plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: none
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Guinea, Puerto Rico.

Guiné Bissau

***(click to enlarge)

GB (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Mandinga, perhaps also (very) diluted European lineage as suggested by a 0,6% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is also plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Cape Verde.

Guinea (Conakry)

***(click to enlarge)

GC (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Fula. Perhaps also distant & diluted European lineage as suggested by a 7.3% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is probably more plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (11 segments & several matches >15cM!)
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Dominican Republic, Guinea, Puerto Rico, Gambia, Nigeria, Jamaica, Brazil, Mexico, Haiti, Guyana, Costa Rica, Bahamas.

Sierra Leone

***(click to enlarge)

SAL1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (4 segments); Jamaica (1 segment), Haiti (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Haiti.

 

**West Africa (Lower Guinea)**

    Observations

  • All parts of the Afro-Diaspora (Trans Atlantic) are well represented. But aside from the USA especially for English speaking Caribbeans this area seems prominent. West Indians were particularly frequent among the matches for my 10 Ghanaian survey participants. Mostly consistent across the whole range of segment sizes (5cM-15cM).
  • This area showed the greatest number of matches>7cM with Afro-Diasporans compared with other parts of Africa, incl. Upper Guinea. Given the preponderance of Ghanaian and Nigerian survey participants as well as 23andme’s customer database being geared towards African American and West Indians rather than Afro-Latino’s this would make sense. In my AncestryDNA survey I have already established that for these former groups Lower Guinea has an edge within their African regional breakdown:
  • Intra-African matches are frequent, especially when also including matches <7cM. Usually just covering neighbouring countries. But at times also more distant countries are mentioned. For this area of Africa it seems that both the Fula & Krio migrations might explain some of the more puzzling (at first sight) connections.
  • A very interesting and quite likely revealing difference in matching patterns occurred between my Igbo and Yoruba survey participants. The former clearly having a much greater degree of match strength with USA than the latter. Consistent also with 10cM+ matches. Perhaps already serving as some form of validation of how Igbo lineage seems much more common than Yoruba lineage for African Americans. In line with documented slave trade records which single out the Bight of Biafra rather than the Bight of Benin as a major region or provenance. See also:
  •  My second Liberian survey participant (possibly Krio) showed an intriguing 0.6% Southeast Asia score in her Ancestry Composition. Possibly reflecting a Malagasy connection by way of a formerly enslaved Virginia resident who returned to Africa in the late 1800’s. An actual match from Madagascar could corroborate such a scenario I suppose. Which would be truly mind blowing. But also illustrating the seemingly randomness of many Afro-Diasporan migrations. See also:

Liberia 1 

***(click to enlarge)

LIB1 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Kpelle, Lorma &Mande
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (2 segments), Haiti (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Haiti, Sierra Leone.

Liberia 2

***(click to enlarge)

LIB2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Krio? Perhaps also (very) diluted European lineage as suggested by a 0.2% European score for this person. As well as 0.6% Southeast Asian!
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (9 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Saint Vincent, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Barbados.

 Ivory Coast 1 

***(click to enlarge)

CIV1 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Malinké. Perhaps also (very) diluted European lineage as suggested by a 0.8% European score for this person. Although a mislabeling of North African DNA is also plausible1.
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (4 segments), Puerto Rico (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Jamaica.

Ivory Coast 2

***(click to enlarge)

CIV2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Malinké?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Haiti, UK, Nigeria, Guyana, Ghana, Barbados.

Ghana 1

***(click to enlarge)

GHA1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Ghana (3 segments), USA (2 segments); Trinidad & Tobago (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Ghana, Trinidad & Tobago, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Colombia, Cuba.

Ghana 2

***(click to enlarge)

GHA2 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Fante (Akan).
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (5 segments), Ghana (3 segments), Barbados (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Ghana, Jamaica, Barbados, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Mexico (and more).

Ghana 3

***(click to enlarge)

GHA3 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: 3/4 Akan & 1/4 Ga.
  • Matches set at 10cM: Jamaica (1 segment), Ghana (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Ghana, Jamaica, Saint Vincent, Haiti.

Ghana 4

***(click to enlarge)

GHA4 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Ga? Perhaps also distant & diluted European lineage as suggested by a 3.0% European score for this person. Most likely accounting for the unexpected UK & South Africa matches.
  • Matches set at 10cM: unknown.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Ghana, UK, Surinam, South Africa (and more).

Ghana 5

***(click to enlarge)

GHA5 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Akan?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Barbados (1 segment), USA (1 segment), Ghana (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Barbados, Ghana, Dominica, Jamaica, Grenada.

Ghana 6

***(click to enlarge)

GHA6 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Akan?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Ghana (3 segments), USA (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Ghana, Jamaica, Belize, Barbados.

Ghana 7

***(click to enlarge)

GHA7 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Akan? Perhaps also (very) diluted European lineage as suggested by a 0.4% European score for this person.
  • Matches set at 10cM: Ghana (4 segments), USA (5 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Ghana, Trinidad & Tobago, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic.

Ghana 8

***(click to enlarge)

GHA8 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (3 segments), Ghana (1 segment), Jamaica (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Ghana, Jamaica, Barbados, Haiti.

Ghana 9 

***(click to enlarge)

GHA9 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Fante (Akan)
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (2 segments), Surinam (1 segment), Guyana (1 segment), Trinidad & Tobago (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Ghana, Surinam, Guyana, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Trinidad & Tobago.

Ghana 10

***(click to enlarge)

GHA10 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Asante (Akan)
  • Matches set at 10cM: Jamaica (1 segment), USA (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Ghana, Colombia.

Nigeria / Igbo 1

***(click to enlarge)

NG (Igbo)1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Igbo?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (8 segments), Dominica (1 segment), Jamaica (1 segment), Nigeria (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Dominica, Nigeria, Grenada,  France/Martinique (and more).

Nigeria / Igbo 2

***(click to enlarge)

NG (Igbo)2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Igbo?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Nigeria (2 segments), USA (3 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Jamaica, Ghana.

Nigeria / Igbo 3

***(click to enlarge)

NG (Igbo)3 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Igbo
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (11 segments), Jamaica (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Nigeria, Brazil.

Nigeria / Igbo 4

***(click to enlarge)

NG (Igbo)4 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Igbo?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (6 segments); Jamaica (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Guyana, Guinea-Bissau.

Nigeria / Igbo 5

***(click to enlarge)

NG (Igbo)5 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Igbo
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (3 segments), Nigeria (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Jamaica, Surinam, Puerto Rico, Guyana, Barbados.

Nigeria / Igbo 6

***(click to enlarge)

NG (Igbo)6 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Igbo
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (12 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Martinique, Dominican Republic, Dominica, Bahamas.

Nigeria / Igbo 7 (also Efik)

***(click to enlarge)

NG (Igbo)7 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Igbo & Efik
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (2 segments); Surinam (1 segment), Saint Vincent (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Nigeria, Australia, Surinam, Saint Vincent.

Nigeria / Yoruba 1

***(click to enlarge)

NG (YOR)1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Yoruba?
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA.

Nigeria / Yoruba 2

***(click to enlarge)

NG (YOR)2 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Yoruba
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico, Jamaica.

Nigeria / Yoruba 3

***(click to enlarge)

NG (YOR)3 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Yoruba muslim?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment), Haiti (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Brazil, Haiti, Colombia.

Nigeria / Yoruba 4

***(click to enlarge)

NG (YOR)4 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Yoruba?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Nigeria (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Ghana, Belize

Nigeria / Yoruba 5

***(click to enlarge)

NG (YOR)5 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Yoruba
  • Matches set at 10cM: Nigeria (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Dominican Republic, Barbados.

Nigeria / Yoruba 6

***(click to enlarge)

NG (YOR)6 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Yoruba?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (2 segments), Nigeria (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Jamaica.

Nigeria / Edo 1 

***(click to enlarge)

NG (EDO&Esan)1 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Edo/Bini
  • Matches set at 10cM: Nigeria (2 segments), USA (2 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Ghana, Cuba.

Nigeria / Edo 2

***(click to enlarge)

NG (EDO)2 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Edo/Bini
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (2 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Nigeria, Mexico, Barbados.

Nigeria / Edo 3

***(click to enlarge)

NG (EDO royal)3 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Edo/Bini
  • Matches set at 10cM: Nigeria (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Saint Vincent, Venezuela, Jamaica, Guyana, France (Guadeloupe), Dominican Republic, Canada, Belize, Bahamas.

Nigeria / Hausa?

***(click to enlarge)

NG (Hausa)1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Hausa-Fulani?
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, Guinea, Barbados.

**Central Africa**

    Observations

  • Notably fewer matches reported with Afro-Diasporans than for my West African survey participants. Still even at 10cM such matches do show up. Mostly for DRC Congo though. And perhaps tellingly not so for Cameroon despite an equal sample size (n=4). It’s too bad I did not have any Angolan survey participants to compare with. See also:
  • Hardly any West Indian matches being reported, even when set at 5cM. Haitian matches do appear though at times and also Latin American matches (incl. Brazil) are more noticeable.
  • Intra-African matches are uncommon, except at the minimal segment size of 5cM. Probably just reflecting the paucity of Central African testers within CoA’s database.  For this area of Africa it seems that Bantu migrations will be most relevant to explain any unexpected population matches.
  • A few of the matches seem to suggest ancestral connections due to the Indian Ocean Slave Trade. In particular one 7cM+ match from Bahrein being reported for one of my Congolese (DRC) survey participants. When applying the lowest threshold of 5cM also a match from Turkey showed up for again a Congolese profile. To be expected perhaps as this country was heavily victimized by both Trans Atlantic as well as Indian Ocean Slave Trade.  See also:

 

Cameroon 1 / Ewondo & Bulu

***(click to enlarge)

CMR1 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Ewondo & Bulu
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Uganda, Costa Rica.

Cameroon 2

***(click to enlarge)

CMR2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Cameroon.

Cameroon 3

***(click to enlarge)

CMR3 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Bamileke
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Cameroon.

Cameroon 4

***(click to enlarge)

CMR4 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Brazil, Nigeria, Jamaica.

Gabon

***(click to enlarge)

GAB (7cM)

  • Confirmed background: Gabon, Congo Brazzaville and Cameroon
  • Matches set at 10cM: Dominican Republic (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Trinidad & Tobago, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Cameroon, Venezuela.

DRC Congo 1

***(click to enlarge)

DRC1 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Bakongo
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (5 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Jamaica, Reunion, Haiti, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Cuba (and more).

DRC Congo 2

***(click to enlarge)

DRC2 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Lunda (Katanga).
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Turkey, South Africa, DRC Congo, Brazil, Bahamas.

DRC Congo 3

***(click to enlarge)

DRC3 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (3 segments), Haiti (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Haiti, Guyana, El Salvador (and more).

DRC Congo 4

***(click to enlarge)

DRC4 (7cM)

  • Confirmed background: northern DRC & Angola.
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Haiti, Mexico, Dominica, Panama, El Salvador, Angola.

Zambia

***(click to enlarge)

ZAM1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Kenya.

**Southern Africa**

  Observations

  • Notably fewer matches reported with Afro-Diasporans than for my West African survey participants. Madagascar forms a very notable exception though! Especially in regards to USA matches. All of which broadly in line with historically documented connections. See also:
  • Hardly any West Indian or Latin American matches being reported, even when set at 5cM.
  • Intra-African matches are quite frequent.  For this area of Africa it seems that Bantu migrations will be most relevant to explain any unexpected population matches. There also was one atypical Ghana match (>7cM) being reported for a Zimbabwean. Aside from possibly just being a IBS glitch perhaps this person’s specific family tree might also offer an explanation.
  • Several of the matches seem to suggest ancestral connections due to the Indian Ocean Slave Trade. Especially one 10cM+ match from Reunion being reported for one of my Malagasy survey participants. But also matches set at 5cM being reported for Mauritius, Seychelles, UAE and Saudi Arabia.  See also:
  • A surprising number of Asian matches (set at 5cM) appeared for both of my Madagascar survey participants. Aside from Philippines also including rather unexpected countries such as Vietnam, China and Japan (!). Given that Southeast Asian migrations into Madagascar are generally thought to have occurred more than a thousand years ago these matches only seem to make sense as (very) generic population matches. Illustrating how genetic similarity and not actual shared descent (within a time frame of 500 years) can be the underlying cause of some of your more surprising matches.

 

Madagascar 1

***(click to enlarge)

MAD1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Malagasy (incl. some distant European lineage based on European score of 1,4%?)
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (10 segments), Reunion (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Reunion, Philippines, Madagascar, South Africa, Somalia, Kenya, Japan, China, Barbados, Australia.

Madagascar 2

***(click to enlarge)

MAD2 (10cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Malagasy (incl. some distant European lineage based on European score of 0,3%?)
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (5 segments), Madagascar (2 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Madagascar, South Africa, Mauritius, Reunion, Vietnam, Philippines, Seychelles, Panama, Kuwait, France, Cuba, China.

 Mozambique 

***(click to enlarge)

MOZ (7cM)

  • Confirmed background: northern Mozambique & Malawi.
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Nigeria, South Africa, Haiti, Dominican Republic, DRC Congo (and more).

Zimbabwe 1

***(click to enlarge)

ZIM1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment), Zimbabwe (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Zimbabwe, South Africa, UK, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kenya (and more).

Zimbabwe 2

***(click to enlarge)

ZIM2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Zimbabwe (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Zimbabwe, Madagascar.

Zimbabwe 3

***(click to enlarge)

ZIM3 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Zimbabwe, UAE, Mexico, Guyana, Colombia (and more).

Zimbabwe 4

***(click to enlarge)

ZIM4 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Kenya, Haiti, Trinidad & Tobago, Zimbabwe, South Africa (and more).

South Africa

***(click to enlarge)

ZA1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Bantu speaker. Perhaps also distant & diluted European lineage as suggested by a 0.2% European score for this person.
  • Matches set at 10cM: USA (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Dominican Republic, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Nigeria, Mexico, Kenya (and more).

**East Africa**

 Observations

  • Only two 7cM+ matches appearing for USA. Tellingly perhaps one of them is for my only Rwandan survey participant who is quite likely Hutu. The other three Tutsi Rwandan persons in my survey did not receive any 7cM+ USA matches. Suggesting that possibly this match (as well as the Kenyan one) could represent a case of a generic population match due to Bantu migrations.
  • My South Sudanese survey participant uniquely did not get any CoA result at all! Whichever setting being applied. This seems to be a testimony first of all of South Sudan’s isolated geographical location as well as 23andme’s customer composition. However I suppose it might also indicate how Nilotic populations from the deep interior were least affected by slave trade routes carrying captives outside of Africa.
  • Intra-African matches are quite frequent. Aside from same country matches it seems that Bantu migrations will be most relevant to explain any unexpected population matches. The extent of these migrations is indicated by mutual matches between Kenyans & Zimbabweans!
  • Several of the matches seem to suggest ancestral connections due to the Indian Ocean Slave Trade. Matches set at 5cM being reported for Madagascar, Comoros, India, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Azerbaijan! See also:
  •  A few European matches (set at 5cM) appeared for some of my Northeast African (Somali/Ethiopia) survey participants. Including matches from the UK and Italy. In addition I also verified a few white American matches appearing under USA. It cannot be ruled out that specific family trees might offer an explanation in selected cases. But generally speaking this outcome seems to be caused by genetic similarity and not actual shared descent (within a time frame of 500 years). Afterall many Northeast Africans have substantial West-Eurasian DNA, even if to be traced back thousands of years ago and not hundreds, generally speaking.

 

Tanzania 1

***(click to enlarge)

TAN1 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Rangi and Sukuma.
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, UK, Kenya, India.

Tanzania 2

***(click to enlarge)

TAN2 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Luo & Hehe.
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, UK, Kenya, India.

Rwanda 1

***(click to enlarge)

RUA1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Tutsi
  • Matches set at 10cM: Rwanda (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Kenya, Brazil, Rwanda.

Rwanda 2

***(click to enlarge)

RUA2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Tutsi
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, UK, Iran, Bolivia, Kenya.

 Rwanda 3

***(click to enlarge)

RUA3 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Tutsi
  • Matches set at 10cM: Rwanda (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: Rwanda, Kenya, USA.

Rwanda 4

***(click to enlarge)

RUA4 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Hutu?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Kenya (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Kenya, Brazil, Trinidad & Tobago.

 Kenya 1

***(click to enlarge)

Kenya1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Luo?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Zimbabwe (1 segment), Kenya (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Canada, Brazil.

Kenya 2

***(click to enlarge)

Kenya2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Luo (Nyanza)?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Kenya (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Kenya, Uganda, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Comoros, Colombia (and more).

Kenya 3

***(click to enlarge)

Kenya3 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): ?
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Kenya, Haiti, Uganda, Saudi Arabia, Puerto Rico, Ecuador.

Kenya 4

***(click to enlarge)

Kenya4 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Swahili & minor Kikuyu.
  • Matches set at 10cM: Kenya (2 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Kenya, Uganda, Haiti, Azerbaijan.

Somalia 1

***(click to enlarge)

SOM1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Somali
  • Matches set at 10cM: Somalia (9 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: Somalia, USA, Italy.

  Somalia 2

***(click to enlarge)

SOM2 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Somali
  • Matches set at 10cM: Somalia (3 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: Somalia, USA, Yemen, UK, Tanzania, Madagascar.

Somalia 3

***(click to enlarge)

SOM3 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Somali
  • Matches set at 10cM: Somalia (7 segments).
  • Matches set at 5cM: Somalia, USA, South Africa.

Ethiopia

***(click to enlarge)

Ethiop 7cM

  • Confirmed ethnicity : Oromo (Woliso)
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: Ethiopia, USA, Eritrea.

Sudan

***(click to enlarge)

SUD1 (7cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Arab?
  • Matches set at 10cM: Sudan (1 segment).
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA, Sudan, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE (and more).

South Sudan

***(click to enlarge)

SUD2 (5cM)

  • Likely ethnicity (based on surname & AC): Dinka
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: none.

 

Uganda

***(click to enlarge)

UGA1 (7cM)

  • Confirmed ethnicity: Aringa & Kakwa.
  • Matches set at 10cM: none.
  • Matches set at 5cM: USA.

 

_______________________________________________________________________

Notes

1.  For my Fula survey participant from Guinea a European admixture score of 7.3% was reported. Combined with 9.3% Middle East/North Africa, as well as 4% unassigned. See also this screenshot:

Most of the European admixture is being labeled as Southern European, but not all of it. Because the Fula generally speaking tend to have minor but substantial amounts of North African(-like) DNA it is possible that this portion of his DNA is simply being mislabeled by 23andme. As many North African results I have seen on 23andme also tend to score considerable socalled “Southern European” scores. Even when they are not aware of any (recent) European lineage. Genetic similarity and (ancient) shared origins between North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula probably being the main culprit. I have observed the same on AncestryDNA:

Nonetheless genuine but diluted European admixture for Fula as well as other people from the Upper Guinea area could still be a real possibility for selected individuals. And even more so for the Krio populations from Sierra Leone and Liberia. Going back to the slave trade period (1400’s-1800’s) especially the intermingling and absorption of mixed-race descendants of European traders by local populations has been widely documented. For references see:

  • “Landlords and Strangers: Ecology, Society, and Trade in Western Africa, 1000-1630″, George E. Brooks, (1993).
  • “Eurafricans In Western Africa: Commerce Social Status Gender & Religious Observance”, George E. Brooks, (2003).
  • “Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate Trades”, George E. Brooks, (2010).

For my two Malagasy survey participants from Madagascar the reported European admixture was much more subdued: 1.4% and 0.3% (unassigned 3.0% & 2.8%).  See also these screenshots:

In their cases I suspect that a genuine distant European ancestor could also still be possible. Because the intermingling with local women and in some cases even settling of European traders/pirates on Madagascar has been historically documented and also already suggested by recent DNA research. For references see:

2. I like to express my sincere gratitude to all my African survey participants! All results on this page have been shared with me directly by invitation. I have naturally taken great care to cut away any name details from the screenshots in order to safeguard everyone’s privacy. Apologies in advance to anyone who recognizes their results and is not comfortable with this blog page featuring them. Please send me a PM and I will remove them right away.

3. Based on the records available in the standard reference database of the Slave Voyages website this East African share in Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade might be less than 0.1% (=6324/6709327). Comparing the total number (6,324) of disembarked captives for Kilwa, Zanzibar and Mombasa, all Swahili ports to the north of Mozambique, with the total number of disembarked captives from Southeast Africa (308,775, overwhelmingly from Mozambican ports with main destination being Brazil) and all of Africa (6,709,327). Naturally all of this is according to what has been documented and excluding voyages with unknown itineraries, obviously the estimates will be higher.

Advertisements