USA

Disclaimers:

  • These charts are NOT meant to be taken as an absolute or definitive display of ethnic origins for modernday populations!
  • Ethnic labels given by Europeans do NOT per se reflect how the slaves would have self-identified themselves! (see this article for more discussion)
  • Take note of the sample size, time period, region and any other details given to familiarize yourself with the CONTEXT of the data!
  • Even if limited in scope, valuable information can still be obtained if you look for the patterns!
  • Sorry for all the exclamation marks 😉 It’s just that i’ve seen these kind of charts being misinterpreted so many times, not only online but also by trained historians. Which is a shame really because misleading conclusions can easily be avoided if you just take these charts for what they are: sample based data which might provide us with extra clues about the ethnic composition of Africans being taken to the USA during a given time period and for a given place/region. All depending on how representative the samples might have been.

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Regional Origins

Trans Atlantic Slave Voyages (Inter-Colonial & Domestic Slave Trade not included!)
For more details read  “African American AncestryDNA Results

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EltisUSA99_zps95858018

Source: Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (2010 Estimates) (http://www.slavevoyages.org)

 

 

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Source: “Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South”, (Michael Gomez, 1998).

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Trans Atlantic Slave Voyages & Inter-Colonial Slave Trade (via West Indies)
For more details read   “Benin/Togo region

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Intercolonial trade (O Malley 2009)

Source:”Beyond the Middle Passage: Slave Migration from the Caribbean to North America, 1619-1807″, : (G. O’Malley, 2009), The William and Mary Quarterly, 66, (1), 125-172.

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Gullah

Linguistic influences from Africa
For more details read “Comparing the Gullah language with other English-based Creoles

English Creole Lexicon

From “Out of Africa: African Influences in Atlantic Creoles” (Parkvall, 2000)

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Perosnal Names (Turner 1949) (p.142)

From “Out of Africa: African Influences in Atlantic Creoles” (Parkvall, 2000)

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Tabel 16 Words in Gullah language derived from Afrcan languages

From “The Gullah People and Their African Heritage” (Pollitzer, 1999)

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Tabel 17 African influence on Grammar, Sounds etc.

From “The Gullah People and Their African Heritage” (Pollitzer, 1999)

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Figure 2 , slave trade numbers versus ling. influence

From “The Gullah People and Their African Heritage” (Pollitzer, 1999)

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Louisiana

Louisiana Slave Database (1719-1820)
For more details read  “Louisiana: most African diversity within the United States?

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***New Orleans Baptism Database 1796-1803

KD Roberts 2003 - Ethnic breakdown Baptized Slaves St Louis Cathedral 1796-1803

Source: “Slaves and Slavery in Louisiana – The Evolution of Atlantic World Identities, 1791-1831” (Roberts, 2003)

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South Carolina

Runaway slaves 1730-1790
For more details read  “Ethnic Origins of South Carolina Runaway Slaves

African Origins of SC runaway slaves2

Pollitzer (1999, p.60)

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Virginia

Bight of Biafra ancestry
For more details read  “The Igbo Connection for Virginia & Virginia-Descendants

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TAST (VA, SC, percentages)

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (2010) (http://www.slavevoyages.org/)

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TAST (VA genderratio)

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (2010) (http://www.slavevoyages.org/)

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Final Passages (Percentage West Indian imports VA,1701-1765)

Taken from “Final Passages: The Intercolonial Slave Trade of British America, 1619-1807″ (O’Malley, 2014)

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