Iberian results

Introduction

As the name already implies this blog is dedicated to Tracing African Roots. However many if not most Afro-descendants actually also have additional non-African ancestry. And for some people this part of their DNA might also be interesting to explore further. I have therefore started a new survey featuring the AncestryDNA results of persons from all over Europe. In order to improve correct interpretation of AncestryDNA’s regions by comparing results with persons from verified backgrounds. I shall eventually publish new sections for other parts of the world as well (West Asia, Asia & Pacific, Native Americans). Follow these links for more details:

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Stats (ES=10)

 

“Iberian Peninsula” only 51% for “typical native”

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Source: Ancestry.com

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Other regions for native Iberians

Source: Ancestry.com

 

Selection of Portuguese & Spanish AncestryDNA results 

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TUGA

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ES compil

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On this page I will feature the AncestryDNA results of people with either a Portuguese or Spanish background. The Portuguese and Spanish are closely related and neighbouring populations. Combined they are often referred to as Iberian. Which is why AncestryDNA has a region called “Iberian Peninsula“. However as shown in the charts above and the following screenshots below it turns out that generally speaking Portuguese & Spanish DNA cannot be described as merely being 100% “Iberian”. According to Ancestry’s info a “typical native” (based on their own 125 samples) would only score 51% “Iberian Peninsula”. Which is pretty much in line with my own findings. Even if based on a much smaller sample size and an interestingly lower group average for my Portuguese samples. Despite being a rather homogenous people (atleast since the 1500’s) it appears that ancient migrations still have their genetic repercussions on Iberian DNA. For a useful overview see:

Aside from socalled “Iberian Peninsula”, which is still usually primary as expected, also socalled “Italy/Greece” is a major genetic component reported by AncestryDNA for native Portuguese and Spaniards. And in addition also socalled “Great Britain” and socalled “Ireland” show up rather consistently above trace level. These last three regions most likely represent respectively generic Mediterranean ancestry as well as Germanic/Celtic influences, absorbed within the Iberian genepool many centuries or even millennia ago. This might surprise many people at first and can even be misleading without correct interpretation. But it’s very useful to be aware of this circumstance as it also has implications for the results of Afro-descendants of Iberian descent. I will discuss this in greater detail in the last section of this page.

In order to avoid any jumping to premature conclusions i highly recommend that you atleast browse through some of the topics mentioned in the following links:

The basic lesson to be learnt is that the country name labeling by AncestryDNA is not intended to be taken literally!  The regional percentages reported by AncestryDNA firstmost signal close genetic similarity to the samples taken from the countries after which the regions have been named. And not actual descent or some kind of blood quantum as is too often assumed.

Ethnicity is a construct which evolves across time due to ethnogenesis. Generally speaking therefore ethnic groups do not possess unique DNA markers. Especially in comparison with neighbouring ethnic groups or from within the same wider region. The most common scenario being a genetic gradient which causes ancestral components to gradually fan out. As can be verified from chart 1.

However by closely studying the regional combinations being reported for Europeans and Iberians in particular we can still learn a great deal. Inspite of individual variation group averages do tend to provide more solid ground to make meaningful inferences when specifying someone’s ancestral origins. Also finding out where a specific region is most prominent or rather most subdued holds valuable lessons. Obviously my survey findings are not intended to reflect any fictional national averages. They should be taken as mere indications given individual variation, limitations of sampling, overrepresentation of certain migrant areas of provenance etc. etc.

As far as I was able to verify all of these screenshots below are from persons of fully either Portuguese or Spanish descent. But naturally i did not have absolute certainty in all cases. Practically all results have been collected by me from public websites or social media.1 I like to thank all my survey participants for having tested on AncestryDNA and sharing their results online so that it may benefit other people as well!

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Portuguese results

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PT stats (n=24)

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The above chart shows in greater detail some key statistical aspects for my Portuguese sample group. We can see for example that even when for 17 out of 24 results “Iberian Peninsula” was reported as biggest region. Instead Italy/Greece” turned up as biggest region for no less than 7 out of 24 persons! Also nearly all results lacked a predominant (>50%) score for just one single region. Instead a combination of usually 3 or 4 main regions is needed by AncestryDNA to describe their Portuguese origins. Primarily “Iberian Peninsula” & “Italy/Greece” but at times also the secondary regions  “Great Britain”, “Ireland” and “Europe West” are reported with substantial amounts (see maximum values). The socalled “Africa North” scores are also very consistent, even if minor in between a range of 2%-9%.

I have added statistical details for 9 confirmed Azorean results as they formed a major subgroup. In fact my Portuguese survey might include several more people of Azorean background. As it is known that Portuguese-Americans are disproportionately hailing from the Atlantic islands of the Azores and Madeira. This might explain why not much differentiation is showing up sofar. Even when in fact also several confirmed mainland Portuguese results are included. And their results were still pretty much in line.

Interestingly my Portuguese sample group showed an even less convincing “Iberian Peninsula” group average (37%) than both the 125 samples from Ancestry’s reference panel (51%) as well as the 10 Spanish samples (63%) from my own survey. Due to limitations of samplesize it might be too early to draw any conclusions. It is however intriguing to connect this finding with the (unconfirmed) suspicion that Ancestry’s socalled “Iberian Peninsula” region might be based on samples from northern Spain, or atleast mostly so.

More supporting evidence can be reviewed in chart 1 where i have also included the group averages for 100 Spanish samples (IBS) from the 1000 Genomes database as well as 24 Basque samples from the HGDP database. I copied these averages from an attachment to a recent paper done by the Ancestry research team and published in the Nature journal (“Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America” , 2017). Regrettably the breakdown is not complete for the Spanish samples. Their group averages (56% for “Iberian Penisula”) are however quite similar to my own Spanish sample group (n=10). Even more interestingly and insightful it seems that on average Basque people might score close to 100% “Iberian Penisula” when tested on Ancestry, atleast when going by these 24 Basque samples from the 1000 Genomes database.

To be sure this does not mean that “Iberian Peninsula” is an indicator of actual Basque descent! However it does seem to suggest that an ancient ancestral component is being detected which is based firstmost on shared origins with the Basque people, quite likely deriving from other pre-Indo-European speaking populations now gone extinct. For geographical and historical reasons such DNA markers would be more prevalent in Spain and perhaps even southwestern France than in Portugal. It would explain why sofar the highest scores i have seen for “Iberian Peninsula” were reported for northern Spaniards and even southwestern French!

However it should be noted that 23andme provides a much more predictive Iberian category (even when it incorporates most of the North African amounts which AncestryDNA is able to detect). According to a very comprehensive study based on the 23andme results of 120 Spaniards and 58 Portuguese the differentiation in Iberian scores is much less stark than on AncestryDNA. The average Iberian score reported for Portuguese being 63,7% versus 67% for Spaniards. Also the Italian scores on 23andme are much lower (but probably still indicative of ancient geneflow rather than any recent lineage). On average 4,3% for the Portuguese and 3,7% for the Spaniards. British & Irish scores are still being reported as well but also lower than on AncestryDNA: on average 3,2% for Portuguese and 2,7% for Spaniards.

For more details follow these links:

I have ranked the screenshots below based on the amount of highest to lowest score for “Iberian Peninsula” as well as “Italy/Greece”. I also mention their regional origins within Portugal but only whenever these details were available to me.

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PORTUGAL  

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Sofar this is the highest “Iberian Peninsula” score i have encountered for a Portuguese person. But still it’s only barely over 50%. Interestingly the “Italy/Greece” component is rather low and only shows up in fourth place. Also take note of the 12% “Middle East” score which is the highest score by far i have seen for a Portuguese. Generally speaking this region is much less pronounced though and on average in between 1%-2%.

PT 52

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 49

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 44

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 40

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PORTUGAL  (Alentejo)

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Interestingly these results are belonging to a person from the Alentejo, which is located in southern Portugal. The North African score of 9% is probably not by coincidence also among the highest such scores i have observed sofar. Still comparing with some of the Azorean results the overall differences are only slight.

PT 40 (Alentejo)

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 39

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 38

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PORTUGAL  (Lisboa)

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The following two results belong to persons from the Portuguese capital Lisbon. Because of urban migration their regional roots within Portugal could ultimately of course still be from elsewhere. But still interesting to observe that overall they are perfectly within the variation of my sample group as whole. The socalled “Great Britain” scores (most likely suggestive of ancient Celtic/Germanic migrations into Iberia rather than recent foreign lineage) are rather pronounced though and sofar the highest i have seen reported for a Portuguese.

PT 37 (Lis)

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PORTUGAL  (Lisboa)

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PT 36 (lis)

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 36

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All of the following results show a primary score for socalled “Italy/Greece” instead of socalled “Iberian Peninsula”. This happened for 7 persons out of 24 within my Portuguese sample group. A somewhat surprising and definitely confusing outcome of my survey sofar. It’s worth repeating again that the country name labeling by AncestryDNA is not intended to be taken literally! Rather these socalled “Italy/Greece” scores are to be considered as a reflection of a generic Mediterranean component within native Portuguese DNA.  “Native Portuguese DNA”  to be defined (loosely) as having been present in the western parts of the Iberian Peninsula for at least the last 1000 years or so. Obviously in a few individual cases recent Italian lineage within the last 2 generations might still be hinted at as well. Especially for multigenerational Portuguese migrants in the US or Canada. Although personally i am not aware of Portuguese-Italian intermarriage rates being particularly prevalent. It’s certainly still a possibility. I have therefore verified to the best of my capabilities that for the following results no such indication of recent Italian lineage would be relevant.

Luckily besides just basic family knowledge and documented genealogy also AncestryDNA’s results actually can be helpful to verify or rule out (to some degree) any genuine Italian ancestry (within the last 2 generations):

  • As shown in chart 1 and also on this page Italians tend to score relatively high amounts of “Caucasus” and “Middle East”. If you are half Italian or even only a quarter Italian this will in most cases be clearly detectable.
  • Check your Genetic Communities overview to see if you are assigned to any of the Italian Genetic Communities
  • Check your closest DNA matches (search on birth location) to see if there’s any (atypical) preponderance of Italian DNA cousins.

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 43 (IT)

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 41 (IT)

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 38 (IT)

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PORTUGAL  

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PT 34 (IT)

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Below is a summary of the same person’s results as shown directly above. Judging from his Genetic Commuties any recent (within last 2 generations) Italian lineage seems unlikely.

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PT 34 (IT) (GC)

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PORTUGAL (Madeira) 

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Only result confirmed to be from Madeira sofar in my sample group. Atleast that i am aware of. The 9% “Africa North” score is striking and perhaps as expected but actually several other Portuguese have also received similar amounts. The SSA admixture of about 1% seems very diluted and certainly not unique within my sample group. Interesting that “Italy/Greece” is showing up in first place but as shown above yet again not out of line with the other results.

MAD - 36 (IT)

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For all the following results i was able to confirm that the person taking the test was of Azorean origin. In fact some of the previous results might also very well have an Azorean background however this information was not available to me. The group averages for 9 confirmed Azorean results are actually almost the same as the group averages for 24 Portuguese results. In the Iberian DNA project based on 23andme results also no drastic differentiation showed up between Azores and mainland Portugal. It might be too soon to draw any preliminary conclusions however it seems that overall Portuguese DNA is pretty much homogenized across its territory without any radically different regional patterns. Further research might pick up on some more subtle variaton though.

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PORTUGAL  (Açores)

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AC 44b

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PORTUGAL  (Açores)

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AC 44

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PORTUGAL  (Açores)

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AC 43

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PORTUGAL  (Açores)

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AC 39b

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PORTUGAL  (Açores)

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AC 39

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PORTUGAL  (Açores)

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AC 33

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PORTUGAL  (Açores)

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AC 33 (IT)

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Spanish results

 

***Chart 3 (click to enlarge)

ES stats (n=10)

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Regrettably i do not have as many Spanish results available as Portuguese results. However despite the minimal sample size already some insightful patterns seem to arise. Which can be independently verified by comparing  with the Ancestry results of the 100 Spanish “IBS” samples in chart 1.  The Iberian Peninsula” group averages for Spaniards are higher than for Portuguese sofar. Also the “Africa North” amounts seem more subdued even if still detectable in almost all cases. Just like for the Portuguese socalled “Italy/Greece” is a major secondary region, however not as pronounced. Also the regional scores indicative of ancient Celtic/Germanic influences are showing up (“Ireland”, “Great Britain”, (Europe West”). Interestingly the biggest discrepancy sofar seems to be for socalled “Great Britain”: my Spanish samplegroup obtaining an average of 3,5% while my Portuguese samplegroup scored 12% on average. Obviously this might just be a reflection of the minimal sample size. However it will be intriguing to see if Galicians will follow the Portuguese rather than the Spanish averages, given the shared Suebi legacy, a Germanic kingdom from 410-565, located in Galicia and northern Portugal.

Of course Spain is a much bigger country than Portugal so some regional variation is to be expected. Then again as already discussed above this outcome might quite likely reflect more so a preponderance of northern Spanish orgins for the Iberian samples within AncestryDNA’s reference panel rather than any stark genetic difference between the Portuguese and the Spaniards per se. Again on 23andme the differences between Spaniards and Portuguese are much less pronounced (see Iberian DNA Project). Given that 23andme is more so focused on detecting origins from within the last 500 years (not always succesfully though) their results might be deemed to be more reliable. Still the AncestryDNA results can be insightful on their own terms as long as you are aware that they are more likely to reflect a more ancient timespan beyond any genealogically meaningful timeframe.

For more details follow these links:

 

I have ranked the screenshots below based on the amount of highest to lowest score for “Iberian Peninsula”. I also mention their family origins within Spain but only whenever these details were available to me.

 

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SPAIN (Basque & Castilian)

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Very insightful as this breakdown shows the most convincing “Iberian Peninsula” score i have seen sofar.  The person who took the test is of partial Basque descent.  Which is in line with the circumstance that on average Basque people might score close to 100% “Iberian Penisula” when tested on Ancestry. As to be verified in this attachmentpublished in Nature (2017), based on 24 Basque samples from the HGDP database. To be sure this does not mean that “Iberian Peninsula” is an indicator of actual Basque descent. However it does seem to suggest that an ancient ancestral component is being detected which is based firstmost on shared origins with the Basque people.

 

 

ES 93

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SPAIN (Valencia)

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This breakdown could be very illustrative for showcasing the main European regional mix for Spaniards on AncestryDNA. Especially given that the trace regions are so minimal. However intriguingly “Africa North” is entirely absent. It remains to be seen how common such an occurence would be for Spaniards. Among my Portuguese sample group i did not observe any breakdown without “Africa North” yet.

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ES 65

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SPAIN  

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Interestingly this person is Mexican-born even if all recent family lines are said to be from Spain. The Native American & Asian trace elements possibly to be explained due to some distant Latin American migrant lineage dating back to colonial Spain! Otherwise the breakdown looks pretty much in line with how many other Spaniards will also be described by AncestryDNA: predominant (>50%) “Iberian Peninsula + secondary “Italy/Greece” as well as minor yet considerable amounts of “Great Britain” & “Ireland”. This time also the “Africa North” and “Middle East” scores are clearly detectable.

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ES 55

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SPAIN  

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The lowest “Iberian Peninsula” score sofar and also combined with the highest socalled “Italy/Greece” amount. Therefore more similar to the Portuguese group averages. Unfortunately i do not know the family origins of this person within Spain. It might be insightful to learn which Spanish area will mirror the Portuguese group averages most closely though. As it seems that for many Hispanics such compositions with increased “Italy/Greece” (and also increased “Africa North”) might be more relevant to understand their Spanish origins than the ones from northern Spain. Extramadura would seem a likely candidate (see also video section). Of course this does not negate that many Latin Americans in fact might also have origins from northern Spain (Galicia, Basque country).

 

ES 40

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Youtube Videos

 

PORTUGAL

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PORTUGAL/SPAIN

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SPAIN (Extremadura)

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SPAIN 

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SPAIN (South)

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Implications for Afro-Diasporans:

1) “Iberian Peninsula” does not cover full extent of Portuguese/Spanish DNA

  • The Iberian origins of Cape Verdeans, Brazilians and Hispanic Americans are described by AncestryDNA not only by “Iberian Peninsula” but also additionally by “Italy/Greece”, “Great Britain”, “Ireland”, “Europe West” and “Africa North”.

2) “Iberian Peninsula” does not exclusively refer to Portuguese/Spanish origins 

  • African Americans & West Indians who receive small “Iberian Peninsula” scores often will not have any genuine ancestral ties to either Portugal or Spain (exceptions made for those with certified Iberian lineage obviously). Rather this outcome will usually be a result of either Low Confidence / Trace Region reporting or else indicative of minor French origins.

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AncestryDNA breakdown for European “natives”

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Predictive accuracy AncestryDNA’s Reference Panel

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This section is intended especially for Cape Verdeans, Brazilians and Hispanics. However for other Afro-Diasporans of partial or suspected Portuguese or Spanish descent it might be valid too of course. The one thing i would like to emphasize is: Don’t assume your Portuguese/Spanish origins are measured only by “Iberian Peninsula”!  It’s much more complex than that. As seen in the screenshots directly above the predictive accuracy of each region on AncestryDNA is variable. Socalled “Iberian Peninsula” being only able to cover 51% of the “typical native”.

There are several additional regions on AncestryDNA which are perfectly compatible with having Portuguese or Spanish lineage. After going through this whole page it should be clear that on average AncestryDNA describes the DNA of “native” Portuguese and Spaniards not as “100% Iberian” but rather as a combination of various regions. Principally “Iberian Peninsula” and “Italy Greece” but also “Great Britain”, “Ireland” and “Africa North” showing up quite consistently and with substantial amounts. As explained already this is mostly reflective of ancient migrations & overlapping genetics/geography rather than any recent lineage  (within last 500 years or so).

All the same this does imply that usually the socalled “Italy/Greece”, “Great Britain”, “Ireland” and “Europe West” scores are actually derived from Portuguese or Spanish ancestorswhen reported for Cape Verdeans, Brazilians and Hispanics. Naturally context is everything and in individual cases recent connections to for example Italy or Great Britain might still be valid. Without any solid independent evidence suggestive of such ancestral ties i would not make any assumptions though. As again all of the above highlighted regions are very frequently reported not only for Portuguese & Spaniards but also in fact for Cape Verdeans, Hispanics and Brazilians! I will eventually provide an update of my Brazilian, Cape Verdean, Dominican, Puerto Rican and Latin American surveys do demonstrate this by also including their European breakdown.

If your own personal results deviate in any drastic manner from the group averages i have calculated sofar it might however be a clue that you do have some extra foreign lineage which is not ultimately derived from an Iberian source. One intriguing aspect of Portuguese and Spanish AncestryDNA results are the minor yet clearly detectable “Africa North” and “Middle East” scores. These are mirrored in the AncestryDNA results of Iberian descended populations in Cape Verde & Latin America. Interestingly it often turns out that such MENA scores are at times reported with higher amounts even for Cape Verdeans & Latin Americans. This might be indicative of several ancestral scenarios not directly involving either Portugal or Spain but rather indicative of either Canarian, Sahelian/Fula, Lebanese/Syrian or even Italian lineage. You will have to investigate this yourself (again context is everything!). However generally speaking an increased degree of Mourisco/Morisco lineage could very well be true in such cases. Afterall this has historically already been established when it comes to the founding populations of Cape Verde & Latin America. And also genetically it has been detected already. For more details see:

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Trace Regions = Low Confidence Regions

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For many African Americans and West Indians some minor degree of “Iberian Peninsula” is often also reported. Typically among a bewildering range of other Trace Regions. Appropriately termed “Low Confidence” regions by Ancestry since their latest update. Their main European regions usually being “Great Britain”, “Ireland”, “Europe West” or “Scandinavia” which is broadly in line with their expected British/Irish admixture (see also this page). It can be said that European DNA is also a melting pot if you go back far enough in time. Receiving a multitude of European (Trace) regions does therefore not imply that you have a confusingly diverse European background. Rather it suggests that your European ancestors were themselves genetically diverse! But still these ancestors could have been from just one or two ethnic groups only.

The genetic diversity existing among native Europeans has been abundantly demonstrated on this page as well as the other European AncestryDNA sections. This circumstance however does lead to potentially misleading results. I will keep repeating therefore that it is crucial not to take the country name labeling of AncestryDNA’s regions too literally! If you keep this in mind you can still obtain insightful information as long as you adopt a broader perspective on European genetics.

It might very well be that some European regions, in particular socalled “Iberian Peninsula” have been disproportionately inherited merely by chance for African Americans & West Indians. Due to their generally only minor amounts of European DNA as well as due to “quirky” recombination. Afterall many British people also receive minor yet still detectable “Iberian Peninsula” amounts (in my survey on average 3,8%, see chart 1).

But most of all it seems that this outcome is caused by the splintering effect of Trace Region reporting. Which according to Ancestry’s own information is less reliable because of the higher degree of uncertainty involved with exactly determining the regional affinities of small DNA segments. To be sure this doesn’t imply that these small trace segments of your DNA would not be unmistakingly European in origin! Continental assignment can be performed much more reliably than regional assignment. Rather it means that AncestryDNA cannot rule out that several European regions could qualify at the same time when describing these small DNA patches. It is well advised therefore to take anything reported at trace level with a grain of salt unless additional clues and corroborating evidence exists.

Historical plausibility as well as known family genealogy should be leading when you want to correctly interpret your European breakdown. In the case of African Americans and West Indians an ultimately British/Irish source for socalled “Iberian Peninsula” scores will usually be the most relevant scenario. However aside from a seemingly randomized Trace Region reporting it could still also be possible that a minor “Iberian Peninsula” amount being reported for African Americans or West Indians will be a valid finding. Especially when this Iberian score is showing up as a main region or above what seems to be typical for either African Americans or West Indians (i will eventually publish their European admixture group averages based on my survey results).

In such cases it should be noted that socalled “Iberian Peninsula” scores are also compatible with having partial French origins! Afterall the French ethnicity is basically a mélange of Mediterranean, Celtic and Germanic genetic components, resulting from centuries or even millennia of migration, conquests and intermarriage. These broadly defined origins are described by AncestryDNA through the use of several overlapping Western and Southern European regions, among which socalled “Iberian Penisula” seems to be particularly prevalent.  This can be verified from the AncestryDNA results of actual French or French-descended people. Intriguingly, based on what i have observed sofar, this also goes for Louisiana Creoles. For more details see:

Again without any additional supporting evidence it is best to go along with historical plausibility and solid genealogical research. However in case you wish to cross-check any possible Portuguese or Spanish lineage i would advise to take a 23andme test as well. As generally speaking their Iberian category is more predictive of genuine Iberian origins especially when dealing with smaller amounts. I personally do not recommend using any of the GED-Match calculators or DNA land for confirming any minor Iberian lineage or any other kind of European let alone African lineage for that matter. From my experience their admixture analysis is only well-suited for people with a single background. It can get very confusing and misleading for people with more complex origins, which almost by definition would include Afro-Diasporans.  Also the timeframe suggested by these thirdparty websites is according to many people even more ancient than the one implied by AncestryDNA.

Another alternative to determine the accuracy of minor and unexpected “Iberian Peninsula” amounts might be to search your AncestryDNA matches by birth location for confirming or disproving any Portuguese/Spanish lineage.  Simply type in the country names Portugal or Spain and see what shows up among the results. Obviously you will want to verify if your match is indeed Portuguese or Spanish on all family lines. Either through their public family trees or the information they are willing to share with you. Even so a myriad of other ancestral options might still be possible as well if you have no certainty on how these matches would exactly be related to you or your MRCA. If you are genuinely interested in finding out the truth you will have to be extra careful & patient in your investigation and resist the temptation to jump to conclusions or seek out “exotic” lineage  😉

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Notes

  1. I like to express my sincere gratitude to all the persons whose online posting of their results has made this survey possible! Almost all of my samples were collected by me from public websites or social media. As i found them to be of potentially great educational benefit for others. I have asked for prior consent whenever i could but regrettably wasn’t able to do so in all cases. I have naturally taken great care to cut away any name details in order to safeguard everyone’s privacy. Apologies in advance to anyone who recognizes their results and is not comfortable with this blog page featuring them. Please send me a PM and i will remove them right away.
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