Haplogroups (Africa)

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Table 5 (Salone Haplogroup freq.)

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Cruciani et al. 2010 (R1b-V88 frequencies)

Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88 – a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages (Cruciani et al. 2010)

 

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Cruciani et al. 2010 (R1b-V88 frequencies, map)

Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88 – a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages (Cruciani et al. 2010)

 

4 thoughts on “Haplogroups (Africa)

  1. Hi Fonte,

    The additional files of the researched paper on trans-Saharan patrilineages (D’Atanasio et al, 2018), revealed the following frequencies and distributions for the haplogroup E1b-Z15939 as follows:

    5.56% for the Asni Berber (n=54)
    50% for the Fulani of Nigeria (North) (n=32)
    3,33% for Burkinabe (n=30)
    22,73% for Tuareg from Niger (n=22)
    15,19% for Fulani from Cameroon (North/Chad) (n=79)
    1,22% for Mandara from Cameroon (n=82)
    25% for the Mandinka from Senegal (n=16)
    36,36% for Gambian from Gambia (n=55)
    14,29% for Mende from Sierra Leone (n=42)

    Further inspection of the Yfull tree shows that the Gambian, the Mende samples, the Mexican sample (from Poznick et al., 2016), as well as the Mandinka samples (from the HGDP panel) aren’t E1b-CTS9883, but belong to deeper and diversified subclades of E1b-Z15939 (=E-CTS9883). Their total is 31. It appears that they have mixed the 4 Senegalese Mandinka samples as part of Gambia.

    https://www.yfull.com/tree/E-CTS9883/

    Consequently, we don’t know yet how the Fulani and the Tuareg samples cluster because NGS (Next-Generation sequencing) wasn’t produced on them. Given the connection between the two groups and what their autosomal DNA has revealed in the last decade or so, it is an interesting line of research. As you showed, in all of the published studies (and private test results) where the Fulani samples from various communities have been analyzed, their autosomal DNA systematically reveals a North African (“Maghrebi”) component which is widely distributed and stable.

    Similarly, in 2012, geneticist Razib Khan concluded that the West Eurasian component of Fulanis that’s commonly observed in admixture analyses (Henn, 2012) is hardly ever found in its “pure” form in the present-day North African populations. They display a “Near Eastern” component which increases as we move east from NW Africa. In his opinion, this component likely arrived in NW Africa sometime between the Classical Antiquity and Islamic periods. This suggests that the “Maghrebi” component of Fulanis must be older – approximately 2000 years old.
    Lastly, he hypothesizes that the source of the Fulanis’ Eurasian component could be either the Tuareg people or perhaps a similar, closely related population, who are likely to have this Maghrebi admixture in higher proportions than any other NW African group.

    The rapid and recent expansion of E1b-M183 (M81) in NW Africa, as evidenced by the paper from Neus Solé-Morata et al., 2016, would corroborate Khan’s hypothesis. E1b-M81 is rare among Fulani, but their old admixture suggests some type of genetic drift, at some point, which would have repercussions in the Y-DNA and/or mtDNA. Only the findings from your paper reveal lineages among the Fula that are much older than the recent expansion of E1b-M81 and converge with present-day populations from the Sahara and not those from the Mediterranean coastal areas of NW Africa.

    The author D’Atanasio suggests that E-Z15939 originated during the last Green Sahara period (10,000-5,000 years ago), possibly in a region of the “Green Sahara” that is now occupied by the desert and probably in a “Green Saharan” population that then split between Northern and sub-Saharan Africa. The authors plan on analyzing whole genome sequences for different Fulbe and Tuareg populations in the near future, so we may learn more.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. I don’t know if you have mentioned the distribution of various Y-DNA haplogroups in relation with Upper Guinea, lower Guinea and West-Central Africa. Following the refinement of major haplogroups with the help of NGS, different distinctions can be made.
    E1b-Z15939 (including its subclades) is restricted to the Sahel and Senegambia. The subclades of E1b-U175 (E-U290) and E1b-M191 (E-U174) are strongly represented among Bantu people.

    Liked by 1 person

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