Haitian 23andme results

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Summary of survey findings
  3. Screenshots of Haitian 23andme results
  4. Screenshots of French Caribbean 23andme results (Guadeloupe, Martinique etc.)

Intro

This page features screenshots of mostly Haitian as well as a few French Caribbean 23andme results. When reviewing these results it is essential to be aware that 23andme has implemented several updates in the last two years. Often beneficial for Tracing African Roots! Starting with the introduction of a new African regional framework in 2018. In 2019 new reference samples were added for especially North Africa. While also the potentially very useful Recent Ancestor Locations feature has been greatly expanded. In 2020 an upgraded algorithm was introduced. I will indicate for each screenshot which version it represents. In fact the differences between the 2018 & 2019 versions tend to be very slight for most people, when looking only at the %’s. But the 2020 update did cause a greater impact. For greater understanding of how 23andme is able to come up with these results and how to correctly interpret the African breakdown read these links:

Haitian group averages

In order to attain greater insight for these Haitian results I have performed a survey (based on the 2018/2019 version).1 Given that the sample size of my Haitian survey (n=30) is already quite considerable it will be useful to look into their group averages and compare with other parts of the Afro-Diaspora! Also in your personal quest as it might serve as a helpful benchmark so to speak. Which makes it easier to see how your own results fit in the greater picture. Do keep in mind that in my surveys I always scale the African breakdown to 100%! So in order to compare you will first have to calculate your own scaled results. Which is very simple. Basically: % for a given African region divided by % of total African amount. Naturally individual variation is a given and is not to be denied! Any meaningful deviations from the group averages hopefully serving as helpful clues.2

Aside from a strictly personalized perspective of course also on a more broader population level the historical context  will remain essential to really get the most out of your own admixture results. As most of the time your results as a Haitian will actually conform more or less with the results of fellow Haitians. And therefore in the greater scheme of things your own personal African roots will be greatly overlapping/similar when compared with the African roots of other Haitians. Afterall as Afro-descendants generally speaking most of our more distant African lineage will be shared with our countrymen with whom we share much more recent ancestral ties. Reinforced at times by relative endogamy and localized genepools. Possibly also causing substructure on a regional level within Haiti. Even when of course across the generations Haitians have also been migrating and intermingling with people from other parts of the country. In particular in the captial Port-au-Prince.

Table 1 (click to enlarge) 

Almost all Haitians (29/30) in my survey received “Nigerian” in first place. Undoubtedly a great deal of genuine Nigerian lineage is included. However in order to avoid misunderstanding it is essential to grasp that 23andme does not have a separate category to assign DNA from Benin and Togo. Which is why such lineage is currently covered by both “Nigerian” as well as “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean”. Therefore the country labeling is not intended to be taken as gospel! Central African DNA was somewhat underestimated in 23andme’s 2018/2019 version. But it is still already a substantial and distinctive component for many Haitians.

***

Table 2 (click to enlarge) 

In the above chart I am using a 3-way macro-regional framework. However due to fewer West African regions available on 23andme it is not completely the same as what I have used for my previous Ancestry surveys (Upper Guinea, Lower Guinea, Central/Southeast Africa, see this chart). Similar regions to “Mali” and “Benin/Togo” are lacking on 23andme at this moment. This inevitably results in some shifts within 23andme’s African breakdown. Nonetheless still instructful to see that Haitians seem to be mostly West African (~70%).  However the Central African component is most likely underestimated in 23andme 2018/2019 version. But even so at around 20% it is already quite distinctive and relatively high when compared with other parts of the Afro-Diaspora. Which is in line with historical plausibility. Not shown in this table but also the additional 4.8% “Broadly African” is to be taken into account and probably to be added mostly to the Central African proportion.

***

Table 3 (click to enlarge) 

This overview shows my Haitian 23andme survey findings in greater detail. Also accounting for any regional substructure within Haiti. Compare also with this overview, based on my previous and more numerous AncestryDNA survey.  The sample size for the 3 main regions within Haiti is of course minimal. And obviously these regional divisons are only meant to be approximate. Still already quite insightful for revealing the various  tendencies in African regional admixture across Haiti. The north stands out as having the highest group average for Central African DNA. Nearly 30%! Most likely an underestimate even because of 23andme’s conservative approach in its 2018/2019 version. Other Haitians actually also still tend to receive distinctive amounts of “Angolan & Congolese”.  

***

Table 3 is indicative of regional substructure within the Haitian population. Even when obviously the sample size is very minimal and also other shortcomings might apply in relation with how these regions within Haiti are defined as well as incomplete details concerning the exact family origins of my survey participants etc.etc.. Genetic substructure is basically referring to subgroups within greater populations. To be defined along geographical, social, cultural, or even “racial” lines. Despite commonalities various localized factors may still have have caused differentiation between various subgroups within a given population. In particular pointing towards a distinctive mix of African regional origins. Showing overlap to be sure but still recognizable due to deviating proportions.

This is a theme I have been researching for Haitans already since 2017 in my previous Ancestry survey. Because of greater samplesize the underlying trends were more visible and robust then. In upcoming blog posts I will discuss these preliminary outcomes in more detail. However I can already say that for Haiti the relevant context would seem to be the known differences in slave trade patterns between the North, West/Center and South (see this link). Summarizing:

  • Northern Haiti (Nord) might possibly have the greatest degree of Central African origins. As measured especially by a group average of 22.4% “Angolan & Congolese“ on 23andme.
  • Western Haiti (Ouest/Centre) might possibly have the greatest degree of Bight of Benin origins (incl. both southwest Nigeria and Benin). More tricky to measure because of a missing category for “Benin/Togo” on 23andme. But most likely indicated in this case by an elevated level (22.7%) of “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean”.
  • Southern Haiti (Sud) might possibly have the greatest degree of Bight of Biafra origins (southeast Nigeria). Also due to additional contraband slave trade carried out by the British from especially Jamaica. Not really surfacing yet in my 23andme survey. Because the “Nigerian” scores are actually quite similar across the country, sofar. However in my previous and more numerous Ancestry survey for Haitians (n=97) this tendency was apparent already.

Again only preliminary but still also interesting to see that people from the North might *on average* have a greater degree of African DNA (>90%) than people from the south who tend to have greater amounts of European admixture. Their group average for total African currently being 76.9% against 95.3% for my 3 survey participants from the north. Minimal samplesize to be sure but in my previous and more numerous Ancestry survey I actually also already identified this trend (see this overview). Further reading:

See link below for my online spreadsheet which features all of the individual results:

______________________________________________________________________________

Haitian Results

As far as I know and was able to verify all of these screenshots below are from persons with 4 Haitian-born grandparents. Unless mentioned otherwise. Meant to illustrate the individual variation among Haitians in the first place. Despite the limited sample size I suspect that these results might already be quite representative. The results have been arranged from highest degree of African admixture to lowest. Whenever such details were available to me I also indicate regional origins within Haiti.

Actually regardless of the total amount of African ancestry the scaled African breakdown looks rather consistent for most Haitians. That is to say “Nigerian” almost always in first place with a substantial but never truly prevailing share of around 30-40%. Unlike most other parts of the Afro-Diaspora it is quite likely that the Nigerian lineage of Haitians is more evenly spread across Nigeria. Including both southwestern and southeastern Nigeria through slave trade by way of resp. the Bight of Benin and the Bight of Biafra (see this section for maps). And even including a minor but still distinctive connection with northern Nigeria. Hausa captives (transported by way of Bight of Benin) being frequently mentioned in historical documentation for Haiti. Again unlike other parts of the Afro-Diaspora (save for Brazil).

It is important to realize that 23andme does not have a separate category to assign DNA from Benin and Togo. Which is why Beninese lineage is also partially covered by “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean”. Aside from also partially being described by “Nigerian”. Again the country labeling is not intended to be taken as gospel! Interestingly the second place within the African breakdown is not always “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” but often also “Angolan & Congolese”. Central African DNA was somewhat underestimated in 23andme’s 2018/2019 version. But it is still a substantial component for many Haitians. Even more so when taking into consideration regional substructure. And in particular the north of Haiti is likely to have an even greater proportion of Central African lineage, on average.

Also take note of the recent ancestral locations which I have highlighted myself. Unlike for other Afro-descendants not appearing at all within the European breakdown of Haitians. Perhaps because European/French admixture dates back further in time for Haitians, on average. Or perhaps also because 23andme didn’t have sufficient French reference samples in their database. Either way it is worthwhile knowing that 23andme has had a hard time in describing French lineage. Similar to the situation on Ancestry before its 2018 update (see this page). As long as it’s showing up as a combination of Northwest European and Southern European scores it will actually be in the line of expectations. Afterall French DNA is basically a mélange of Germanic, Celtic and Mediterranean influences. So as always it is wise not to take the country labeling of “French & German” etc. too literally 😉 As in fact native French will also tend to receive high scores for “Britsh & Irish” or “Spanish & Portuguese”, correlating mostly with which part of France they are from (see this thread).

After the 2019 update the recent ancestral location tool is also often indicating Haitian department origins!  Which can be very useful! And amazingly a few times such recent ancestral locations are also appearing in the African breakdown! Regrettably not very often, but still I have seen this for 2 Haitians already. Each time confirming and even in one case specifying Nigerian lineage on a state level! Very valuable results therefore. I believe this feature (based on DNA matching strength) holds great potential for further specification of African lineage in future updates. Although the implied timeframe has to be expanded from the current 200 years to atleast the 1700’s. Which is afterall the most relevant time period when wanting to Trace African Roots for Haitians (see this chart). I like to thank again all the persons who kindly agreed to share their results with me!

***

HAITI (Nord?)

***

2019 version. Practically 100% African result for this person. Such results were more frequent in my AncestryDNA survey (4/45, see this chart). To be kept in mind is that 23andme applies a more finetuned detection of trace admixture than on Ancestry. So even for native Africans being tested on 23andme it is not always “easy” to attain 100% African results  Instead it is often appearing as 99.9%. See also my African survey of 23andme results. Also noteworthy for featuring the second-highest “Angolan & Congolese” score in my survey, based on 2018/2019 results that is.

***

HAITI (Nord)

***

2020 version. Keep in mind that this represents the most recently updated version of 23andme. Most likely resulting in improved detection of Central African DNA. At the expense it seems especially of “Broadly African”. Either way an astonishing “Angolan & Congolese” score on display for this person! Firmly in first place. Unlike what I observed in my entire survey based on the 2018/2019 version. But quite likely more Haitians will receive primary scores for “Angolan & Congolese” as well after they get their 2020 update too. In particular (but not necessarily so!) if they happen to be from the north as is this person.

***

HAITI (Nord?)

***

2018 version. Highest pre-update “Congolese” score in my survey. In fact many if not most Haitians in my survey obtained double digit scores for “Angolan & Congolese”. Even more so when combined with “Southern East African” and “Broadly Congolese etc.”.

***

HAITI (Ouest)

***

2019 version.

***

HAITI (Ouest/Centre)

***

2018 version. Results from the west of Haiti, incl. Port-au-Prince and Léogâne. West African regions being predominant as perhaps to be expected given strong Bight of Benin connections for this part of the country. However notice that the “Congolese” score is still showing up quite strongly as well in double digits. Which was quite rare in my Anglo-Caribbean survey (save for Bahamians & Garifuna, see this page).

***

HAITI (Ouest)

***

2020 version. These are the most recently updated (2020) results. Notice that most of the “Broadly” scores have now disappeared due to homogenization. The “Nigerian” score also looks strikingly high when compared with scores from the 2018/2019 version. Very special to see a recent ancestral location appearing for Nigeria, regrettably without further details. Only one other Haitian result I have seen also has Nigeria specified as recent ancestral location. Among 43 Jamaicans it happened a bit more frequently: 6 times.

***

HAITI (Ouest/Centre?)

***

2020 version. Another recently updated result. Interestingly showing “Ghanaian, Liberian and Sierra Leonean” in first place! This category could very well actually be suggestive mainly of lineage from Benin or Togo for Haitians, given prevailing slave trade patterns.  Regrettably I do not know what this person’s pre-update breakdown looks like. But the impact of 23andme’s new algorithm could *possibly* lead to Haitian results gravitating to “Nigerian” in a lesser degree than before. But of cource not for every one. I will need to see more updated results though.

***

HAITI (Nord & Ouest?)

***

2019 version. This person has atleast two grandparent from the north (Cap Haitien). But possibly also some family ties to Ouest Department as suggested by 23andme’s recent ancestral location feature.  But I suppose this actually could also be the other way around because of shared northern Haitian ancestors who migrated to the capital. As will probably also be the case for the mentioning of Dominican Republic. Either way the “Angolan & Congolese” score looks quite distinctive. And is in line with a northern background from my findings.

***

HAITI 

***

2019 version.

***

HAITI 

***

2018 version.

***

HAITI (Nord)

***

2019 version. Many Haitians may receive a recent ancestral location specifying their *estimated* department origins within Haiti. And at times also actually in the Dominican Republic. Based on DNA matching strength so obviously not meant to be conclusive but rather indicative. Naturally several ancestral scenario’s could be valid because of migrations in both directions. And therefore the implied shared ancestry might also be the other way around. In this case for example it could be both shared ancestry by way of  Haitian migrants intermingling among Dominicans in Peravia. Or this person possibly having a Dominican ancestor from Peravia on one line.

***

HAITI (Sud)

***

2018 version. Fascinating to see how practically equal scores for “Nigerian” and “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” are obtained by this person. Something which is quite uncommon in my survey. Perhaps no coincidence that it should happen for a person from the South. As this part of Haiti is likely to have a greater degree of origins from Ghana or even Liberia and Sierra Leone. Due to Intra-American slave trade by the British being more common in the southern part of Haiti.

***

HAITI (Ouest/Centre)

***

2018 version.

***

HAITI 

***

2019 version.

***

HAITI (Ouest/Centre?)

***

2019 version. Only person in my survey to have “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” in first place. That is based on results reflecting the 2018/2019 version. It might become more frequent after the 2020 update. In many cases most likely correlating with origins from either Beinin or Togo. Although in fact many Haitians might also have genuine Ghanaian lineage (incl. Akan). Unfortunately the distinction cannot be made currently by 23andme.

***

HAITI (?)

***

2020 version. This person is actually adopted so I have no firm confirmation about his Haitian origins. In most aspects his profile appears to be within the known variation of Haitian results. The first place in the African breakdown is however going to “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean”. Which was rather unusual in the 2018/2019 versions. However this might perhaps become more common in the updated 2020 version. Benin/Togo ancestry most likely being implied. However due to additional and often illegal Intra-American Slave trade Haitians actually also have genuine ancestral ties with Ghana (incl. Akan). And to a lesser degree even with Liberia and Sierra Leone. Follow-up research involving African DNA matches is required though to gain more insight.

***

HAITI 

***

2019 version. This person clearly has an above average score for “Nigerian”. And amazingly it is being specified by way of recent ancestral location zooming into a northern Nigerian state!  Adamawa state being located in northeastern Nigeria. And actually quite multi-ethnic (incl. also Hausa-Fulani) so nothing conclusive yet. Either way this is really an astonishing outcome as sofar I have only seen southern Nigerian states being specified for Afro-Diasporans. One does need to fully understand the methodology used by 23andme to arrive at this impressively detailed prediction. Also to be kept in mind that naturally it will not be in contradiction of any other additional origins being from other parts of Nigeria. Still with further refinement this tool looks very promising for zooming into specific African lineage in future updates!

***

HAITI (Nord & Sud)

***

2018 version.

***

HAITI (Ouest/Centre)

***

2018 version.  Another example of practically equal scores for “Nigerian” and “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” . Most likely also indicative of a high level of Beninese lineage actually as such origins are covered by both categories. “Congolese” being quite subdued. Actually one of the lowest Central African scores in my survey. Also interesting to see the minimal but still distinctive 1.6% Native American score. The second-highest in my survey. In fact for most Haitians this type of admixture is either absent or smaller than 1%. The group average being 0.5%.

***

HAITI (Sud)

***

2019 version

***

HAITI 

***

2018 version.  One of the highest “Nigerian” scores in my survey. Scaled being practically 50% (=41/82.4) of the African breakdown. Also the minor but still distinctive “North African & Arabian” score is standing out in my survey.

***

HAITI (Sud)

***

2018 version. The mix of Northwest & Southwest European categories to describe French DNA might be confusing at first sight. However it makes sense if you take into consideration France’s intermediate geography and ancient origins of the French people, incl. Germanics, Celts and Mediterraneans.

***

HAITI (Nord & Ouest)

***

2020 version.

***

HAITI (Ouest/Centre?)

***

2019 version.

***

HAITI (Ouest/Centre?)

***

2018 version. Highest “Senegambian & Guinean” score in my survey. Still quite subdued and below 10% even. Which is in line with slave trade patterns for Haiti. Providing quite a contrast with especially Dominicans who share the same island with Haitians. But often show higher levels of Upper Guinean DNA due to earlier waves of African captives from the 1500’s. Although minor  these origins are still quite distinctive for Haitians. Because it will more often indeed cover strictly Senegambian plus also Malian origins.

***

HAITI (Ouest & Sud)

***

2018 version.

***

HAITI (Ouest/Centre)

2018 version.

***

HAITI (Sud?)

***

2019 version.

***

HAITI (Sud)

***

2018 version.  This person shows the highest scaled “Nigerian” score in my survey. Representing more than half of the African breakdown (35.4/67.8 = 52%). Very interesting given the confirmed (4gp) southern Haitian origins for this person. Because of different slave trade patterns the southern part of Haiti might have a greater connection with the Bight of Biafra and associated Igbo lineage. This argument seems to be corroborated by the fact that Jamaica is being mentioned as recent ancestral location! Of course multiple ancestral scenarios could be hinted at. However shared ancestry due to Intra-American slave trade carried out by the British from mostly Jamaica into often southern Haiti seems quite likely.

***

HAITI (Sud)

***

2018 version. Although it might seem quite insignificant still interesting to see the minor but still detectable Southeast Asian admixture. This is rather uncommon for the Haitian results I have seen. However for African Americans it is much more frequent. Albeit almost always also with very small trace amounts of around 1%. Still in most cases I suspect such outcomes provide an indication of Malagasy lineage.  For Haiti actually Mozambican lineage being much more likely than Malagasy, but it might still be possible (see this page). Preferably to be confirmed by finding associated DNA matches though as obviously this amount is still witin the “noise” range.

***

HAITI (Sud)

***

2019 version. Remarkable Native American score, easily the highest within my survey. But actually for most Haitians this type of admixture is either absent or smaller than 1%. The group average being 0.5%. Also noteworthy that “Angolan & Congolese” is rivalling “Nigerian” for first position within the African breakdown. Possibly succeeding after the 2020 update which seems to provide an improved detection of Central African DNA.

***

HAITI (Ouest & Nord)

***

2019 version. Lowest amount of African admixture in my 2018/2019 survey. However notice that the scaled breakdown is pretty similar to that of Haitians with over 90% African admixture. “Angolan & Congolese” also showing up strongly but “Nigeran” in first place. Don’t let the mere 1.6% “French & German” fool you onto thinking this person will not have any considerable French lineage! The prediction accuracy of this category was notoriously bad for French people in 23andme’s 2018/2018 version. I would not be surprised if most of the Northwest & Southern European %’s are to be related with French DNA. Which is afterall a mélange of Germanic, Celtic and Mediterranean influences. Unless of course this person would be aware already of any other type of European lineage in advance. See this screenshot for this person’s updated (2020) results.

______________________________________________________________________________

French Caribbean Results

As far as I know and was able to verify all of these screenshots below are from persons with 4 grandparents from the same indicated background. Unless mentioned otherwise. People from the French Caribbean (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyane etc.) share a great deal of African origins with Haitians because of their shared French colonial past. However due to differences in peaks of slave trading as well as a greater extent of illegal Intra American slave trade carried out by the British there could still be some meaningful differences with Haitians, despite much overlap. On average of course and when analyzed on a population level. See link below for my online spreadsheet which features all of the individual results:

***

GUADELOUPE 

***

2018 version. Regrettably I only managed to collect very few French Caribbean results. However this particular one seems like it could be quite representative. Due to extensive Intra-American Slave Trade by especially the British it could very well be that generally speaking Guadeloupe’s proportional breakdown of African origins will show greater overlap with many Anglo-Caribbean islands. In particular in regards to origins from the Bight of Biafra (Igbo) and Gold Coast (Akan). When comparing this breakdown with my surveyed Haitian results the extra elevated “Nigerian” result stands out the most I suppose as well as the somewhat subdued “Congolese” score. See also this page for more details.

***

GUADELOUPE (& Réunion/Mauritius/Madagascar?)

***

2019 version. This result and the two following ones belong to three siblings. Very distinctive and exceptional breakdowns. So not quite representative of Guadeloupe genetics. As I actually do not have 100% certainty about their exact family origins. Quite possibly they may be partially Malagasy or Indian Ocean Créole. Standout features are clearly the extraordinary amounts of “Southern East African” and “Southeast Asian”. Combined accounting for around 20%.  In fact distant Malagasy lineage is also widespread among other Afro-descendants, especially African Americans. But practically always in much more diluted amounts, usually only around 1-2%!

***

GUADELOUPE (& Réunion/Mauritius/Madagascar?)

***

2019 version. Also remarkable about these 3 results is the minor but still considerable amount of South Asian admixture. Something which is likely to be much more common anong French Caribbeans than among Haitians. As South Asian contract labourers from the 1800’s (often Tamil) have been well documented (see this link). Unlike for Haiti which afterall already gained its independence in 1804. In this case though intriguingly Gujarat is being pinpointed. Which makes it perhaps more likely I suppose that these persons are partially Indian Ocean Créole.

***

GUADELOUPE (& Réunion/Mauritius/Madagascar?)

***

2019 version. Also very interesting to see how there is indeed some slight sibling variation between these three results. However notice that actually despite recombination the similarities are prevailing. To be seen for example in how “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” is showing up as biggest AFrican region in all three cases. The Recent Ancestral locations are also consistent for Gujarat. For France it is showing up 2 out of three times. To be explained I  am guessing by French DNA matches/segments not being inherited by 1 sibling.

___________________________________________________________________________

Notes

1)  Many results included in my survey have been shared with me by the DNA testers themselves. Other results were also kindly shared with me by friends from among their matches/connections. And some results were collected by me from social media as well. Naturally I verified the background of each sample to the best of my capabilities but I did not have absolute certainty in all cases. This page features a selection of these surveyed results. I do actually have more screenshots available. However these were mostly obtained from the DNA Relatives page. And therefore these screenshots are in a less viewer-friendly format (see for example this screenshot). Their results are fully detailed though within my online spreadsheets.

My survey of Haitian 23andme results is mostly consisting of results which were obtained after the 2018 update (Ancestry Composition v3.0 & v5.0). In 2019 23andme expanded their reference datasets with South Asian, West Asian and most importantly North African samples. At first this prompted me to stop my survey because ideally you would want to only collect DNA results produced on the same footing. In order to avoid comparing apples and oranges so to speak. However it actually turns out that this 2019 update (Ancestry Composition v5.2) produced only very slight and marginal changes for most of my survey participants. Nothing profoundly different at all. At least within the African breakdown.

Therefore in the interest of greater understanding and expansion of sample size I have decided to also include Haitian 23andme results which reflect the 2019 update rather than the 2018 version. Actually in some cases I might not also have been completely aware of which version my survey participants were tested with. Again I do not think that this impacts my survey findings overall speaking. As the 2018 & 2019 versions were greatly similar or even nearly identical for most people (see for example this before and after screenshot). The 2020 update has been more impactful however. And such results have not been included at all in my surveys sofar. See also:

2)I firmly believe that despite inherent limitations and given correct interpretation 23andme’s regional admixture estimates can be very useful as a stepping stone for follow-up research. And just to get a general idea of where most of your African ancestors hailed from. All according to the latest state of knowledge. Which naturally may be improved upon across time. I find it important to stay positive and focus on what ever informational value you can obtain despite imperfections. Instead of taking an overtly dismissive stance. Preffering to see the glass as half full rather than half empty 😉 You do need to make an effort yourself and stay engaged to gain more insight though!

In particular your follow-up research may include a focus on your African DNA matching patterns and how your African DNA matches may validate or correlate with your regional admixture scores. For example if you find around 20 African matches and 10 of them appear to be either Yoruba or Igbo Nigerians then this solidifies and also potentially specifies any major “Nigerian” score you might have obtained. See also:

  • African DNA matches reported by Ancestry for 30 Haitians (under preparation)

Furthermore you will want to expand your knowledge about the historically documented presence of Africans in your earliest known places of origin within the Americas. In order to establish the historical plausibility of your 23andme scores. For example if you happen to be Haitian it is vital to be aware of both Trans-Atlantic and Intra-American Slave Trade. The latter flow of people quite likely resulting in a great deal of shared African lineage with especially Jamaica and other parts of the Anglo-Caribbean. In particular from the Bight of Biafra and the Gold Coast. Also getting acquainted with the relative time framing or “waves” of various groups of Africans arriving from different regions will be very useful (see this chart).

Any follow-up research is of course to be customized according to your own personal situation and also according to your research preferences. Plain genealogy is indepensable for dilligently building up a decent family tree. Which is very valuable in itself. But regrettably these strictly genealogical efforts will usually not lead you back all the way to Africa. Save for some rare exceptions (Questlove on Finding Your Roots). Hence why I always insist on avoiding any source snobbery with relation to regional admixture analysis, such as performed by 23andme.

However when duly performed your family tree research will allow you to at least identify your earliest known ancestral locations within the Americas. Which will make it easier to correlate with slave trade patterns and documented African ethnicities for those areas. And if you are very persistent and/or lucky this might also eventually allow you to find localized documentation (plantation records; private correspondence of slave owners; church records; newspaper advertisements about runaway slaves etc.) possibly even mentioning any of your African-born ancestors on 1 single family line!

Combining advanced genetic genealogy techniques such as triangulation and DNA Painter with regional admixture of shared DNA segments also holds great potential in my opinion. As it might enable you to identify an earliest family line associated with such regional admixture! Especially when this regional admixture is distinctive such an approach can be very fruitful. For example when dealing with possible Central African lineage the presence of any “Angolan & Congolese” admixture should be very useful. Even when somewhat subdued such scores are likely to be genuine still. And after the 2020 update you will probably receive a more accurate estimate even. Naturally all of this is to be combined with any other clues you might have. Also it goes without saying that extra scrutiny is always required in order to avoid jumping to conclusions!

2 thoughts on “Haitian 23andme results

  1. Nice work. Is there a way I can donate for all the work you’re doing? You’re doing the Ancestors work, brother.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks so much for your comment! I am truly touched by your appraisal of my work! You know, I love performing this kind of research. But knowing that it’s also meaningful for other people makes it all the more worthwhile!

      Really there’s no need for a donation. However I do offer a service whereby I can look for your African DNA matches on Ancestry and also in addition analyze your regional admixture. If you have tested with Ancestry have a look on this page and see if this is something which might interest you:

      https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/african-dna-matches/

      Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s