East Africa

EA figura

23andmesamplesOA

Knowing which African populations score the highest for each of the 23andme “Sub-Saharan African” (SSA) categories can be a good indication for their predictive ability. Below screenshots are all taken from people who have kindly agreed to share their results with me. For which i am very grateful! They were either born in the African country highlighted or have both parents from that country. These are obviously first of all individual results and very limited in number because there’s only very few Africans yet who have tested with 23andme. I’m posting them for illustrative purposes, mainly to get a very rough idea what to expect. Undoubtedly with more African 23andme test results you might see different or additional patterns. Still i think in most cases these screenshots below would be representative to some degree for how other people from their nationality or ethnic group would score hypothetically speaking. I will provide a brief overview of the main patterns i’m able to pick up on. Of course it merely shows my personal opinions & thoughts and is not meant to be conclusive in any way 😉

It will be insightful to also compare with the AncestryDNA results of East Africans which can be seen via this page:

p.s. I’m only showing screenshots of the African breakdown. You’ll notice it will often not add up to 100%. In most cases this is because of a well known “bug” in the current version of Ancestry Composition causing people of 100% “Sub-Saharan African” (SSA) descent to show trace levels of non-SSA admixture or “unassigned” ancestry, this can generally be considered “noise”, i.e. reflecting an artefact of the DNA test. Hopefully it will be fixed with the next update. In some other cases though the individuals will have genuine additional non-SSA ancestry, which might however be “native” to Africa still if it’s labeled as “North African”, otherwise it might reflect historical geneflow from outside of Africa within the last 500 years or even earlier.

  • the “East African” category on 23andme or more properly said the “Northeast African” category probably peaks among Somali. Most of my 7 Somali examples being nearly 100% “East African”. Interestingly the last two being exceptions. Most likely because of some additional minor ancestry from the Middle East and South Asia dating from within the last 500 years. The “West African” is still minimal or even absent.  This peaking of the “East African” category among Somali is likely caused by “overfitting” or a “calculator effect” because 12 Somali customers from the 23andme database were used as samples (see screenshot above).
  • Otherwise it is Ethiopians who seem to score most consistently for “East Africa”, they were also among the samples being used. However unlike the 7 Somali results they are also shown as having a significant “North African” component. This should not be taken as suggestive of recent ancestry from that area but rather indicative of their DNA markers in part being similar to the ones for the samples being used to define the North African category.
  • The most notable difference between the South Sudanese sample and the northern Sudanese is precisely this socalled “North African” component. Besides also a different degree of “West African”. Their “East African” percentages seem to be in a similar range.
  • All the Ethiopians, the Eritrean and also the Somali hardly show any “West African” % beyond trace level. This seems to be a robust sign of mutual exclusivity implying that the “East Africa” category seems to be very predictive of specifically Northeast African ancestral origins or affinity because there’s no overlap with the “West African” category.
  • Most of the other East African examples below however do show a significant “West African” component. Again this should not be taken as recent ancestry from that area but rather indicative of their DNA markers in part being similar to the ones for the samples being used to define the “West African” category, i.e. “Niger-Congo-like”. As discussed on the previous page Kenyan Bantu samples were used among others to define the “West African” category so it’s not that surprising that this similarity is showing up.
  • Among Rwandans and Kenyans there are some high outliers, higher even than the Ethiopian ones! The ones for Rwanda approaching the Somali results of over 90%. But there’s also some lower “East African” percentages for especially the Kenyans, suggesting a greater variation according to ethnic background. Tanzanians also show considerable scores, with the Sudan and Ugandan results somewhere in between. I have some results from Mozambique and Zimbabwe as well and they show either zero or very miniscule “East African” %’s of below 1%. For two Madagascar results it’s also very minor but still at detectable level of in between 1-3% (see “Central & South Africa” for their screenshots). Indicative of this ancestral cluster rapidly decreasing when going south.
  • Again much of the variation will also be depending on ethnic background and deep ancestry aside from just nationality or geography. Nilotic speaking groups (like the Maasai samples) or Cushitic speaking groups (like the Somali) being more likely to score highest for “East Africa”. This might actually also include a few ethnic groups who might have undergone a language shift and are now speaking a Bantu or Afro-Asiatic (Amhara etc.) language instead. Or Bantu/Afro- Asiatic speaking etnicities who absorbed formerly Nilotic/Cushtic speakers within their ranks through intermarriage. It is often underestimated IMO how ancient & complex histories of ethnogenesis are still able to impact on admixture tests that are supposedly in 23andme’s case looking back only “500 years”.

**Highest scores among East Africans**

Somalia 1

SOM6

Somalia 2

SOM

Somalia 3

SOM2

Somalia 4

SOM 3

Somalia 5

SOM5

Somalia 6

SOM4

Somalia 7

SOM7

Ethiopia 1

ETH (2)

Ethiopia 2

ETH (3)

Ethiopia 3

ETH (1)

Eritrea

ERI

Sudan

Sudan (EB)

South Sudan

SUD

Uganda

UGA

Rwanda 1

Rwanda

Rwanda 2

RUA (3)

Rwanda 3

RUA (2)

Rwanda 4

RUA (1)

Kenya 1

KEN (4)

Kenya 2

KEN5

Kenya 3

KEN (1)

Kenya 4

KEN (2)

Kenya 5

KEN (3)

Kenya 6 (Luo)

KEN6

Tanzania 1

TAN (1)

Tanzania 2

 TAN (2)

Tanzania 3

TAN (3)

**Highest scores outside East Africa**

  • Outside of East Africa proper from what i’ve personally observed this category only seems to appear among selected ethnicities, i.e. South African Coloureds and West African Fula, or West Africans with likely partial Fula ancestry (posted near bottom of page). For one individual of confirmed Fula background “East African” reaches almost 20%! For the others it’s much more reduced but still detectable. It’s important to note that this doesn’t imply any recent ancestral connections with Northeast Africa, it’s rather pointing towards genetical similarity/affinity and possibly very ancient shared ancestry with presentday Northeast Africans but not per se originating from that area. It might be testament to very ancient Nilo-Saharan connections across the interior of West to East Africa, obscured nowadays because of language shift and ethnogenesis. Specifically for the South African Coloured results it might be an intriguing testimony of an ancient link between the Khoisan and Northeast Africa, see also this paper from 2012, and this one from 2014.

Guinea Conakry (confirmed Fula)

GUI

 Fula (unknown country)

Fula1

Senegal  (possibly Fula or partially so)

SEN

Gambia (possibly Fula or partially so)

GAM

Nigeria (possibly Northern)

NIG

Nigeria (Hausa & Fula)

Niger (Hausa & Fula)

South Africa (Coloured)

ZAk (1)

**Highest scores among Afro-Diaspora**

  • Among the hundreds results i’ve personally seen for Afro-descended individuals (both among my sharing list and also posted on various online forums) practically all score “East African” below trace level of 1%. The highest score i have seen myself being 1,6%, which is also the only one above 1% (see screenshots below). For most  Afro-Diasporans it seems “East African” is simply inexistent and only for a few it’s in between  0,5%-1%. Obviously this would represent a very minor part of their overall African origins but it can still provide a valuable indication in some cases for identifying 1 single African ancestor.
  • This outcome being in line with documented slave trade to the Americas not involving Northeast Africa but reaching its outer limit in Southeast Africa or Mozambique. So in that sense it could be seen as a confirmation for Afro-Diasporans generally not having any Northeast African origins. Of course individual exceptions should not be ruled out at this preliminary stage but the odds seem to be very small indeed. A small % of “East African” is more likely to be indicative of ethnic West African roots instead for most Afro-diasporeans. The very dilluted “East African” ancestral component being inherited from specifically the Fula who are the only West Africans i’ve personally seen to score minor yet very detectable levels of “East African”. Scenario’s involving other ethnicities from Southeast Africa also still being possible though.
  • A notable exception however being Afro-descendants located in the Middle East and the Indian Ocean islands. Unlike the Trans Atlantic Afro-diasporans, these people often will have substantial East African origins resulting from the socalled Indian Ocean slave trade and/or the Trans Saharan slave trade carried out mostly by Muslims. This slave trading circuit was largely separate from the Trans Atlantic one and is known to also have targeted areas within Northeast Africa. The two very last screenshots posted below are testament to that legacy, showing “East African” admixture levels which seem to be very distinct and elevated compared with Trans Atlantic Afro-diasporeans. Making this a recognizable “tell tale” marker in a way to distinguish both groups of Afro-diasporeans. Much of their socalled “West African” component might actually also hail from Bantu speaking areas within East Africa. Hopefully a future update will bring more clarity.

USA

AA

USA

AA

Dominican Republic

DR

Tunisia

TUN

United Arab Emirates

UAE

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25 gedachten over “East Africa

  1. Via PM i received the following observations which i will share over here (with permission) as i find them very insightful:

    “1) 23andme’s East African is not always consistent with the reference group’s definition, at least if one assumes that the reference group is weighted. I don’t understand how Somalis are nearly 100% East African when the reference group is dominated by Massai. If they are taking a simple group average between Massai + Horners, I would understand, but a weighted average would put the Somali’s at less than 100%.

    2) The East African does not correlate to the PCA. There are several Rwandan’s that score similar EA scores to Somali’s but their PCA position clearly indicates they are further south and genetically more dissimilar. This is further notable when comparing their Gedmatch results to 23andme. Ironically, Gedmatch is more consistent and better correlates to the PCA when comparing various East Africans. Personally, I find it hard to believe Rwandans and Somalis should score the exact ancestry composition.”

    My two cents:

    1) Good point, my guess would be that it’s partially to do with a remnant “overfitting” or “calculator” effect, caused by Somali samples being used from 23andme’s own client database. Another thing possibly contributing to this outcome could be a difference in the way the Maasai samples have been genotyped by Hapmap3, most likely capturing a lower number of SNP’s or else a less custommade set of SNP’s compared to 23andme’s own method of genotyping. The Somali samples from 23andme also likely to be much more recent; Hapmap3 samples dating from 2009 if i’m not mistaken.

    2) Very true! I had not bothered yet to check their PCA position (ANCESTRY TOOLS > GLOBAL SIMILARITY MAP) but you’re correct the few Rwandan people and the 1 Somali i’m sharing profiles with are clearly clustering apart from each other. I was also a bit surprised by the 90%+ EA scores of the 2 Rwandans (most likely of Tutsi background) and how closely they approached the one single Somali result. Perhaps 23andme is moreso picking up on Maasai similarity for them compared with Somali’s whose results also reflect their similarity to the Somali samples used by 23andme. I did notice however that the Rwandans still show some minor but detectable “West African” (3.6%-4.4%) , while the Somali and all the Horners only seem to have it at noise level. I remember from Tishkoff (2009) there were a few mixed Tutsi/Hutu samples but they only scored less than 20% “Cushitic” in that particular study.

    Also Razib Khan once genotyped a Rwandan person, supposedly 3/4 Tutsi and 1/4 Hutu. (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2011/08/tutsi-differ-genetically-from-the-hutu/#.VQRn4o6G9GY). It’s quite interesting because in the figure of his K=7 ADMIXTURE run you can see how the Tutsi individual compares with some Somali and also Maasai.

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  2. tutsi from rwanda and somalis are related this is well known fact ask most somalis they will tell you tutsis from Rwanda are originally from somalia

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    • Thanks for commenting! Judging from these 23andme results it seems they do share a great amount of similar DNA. If they indeed also share a set of common ancestors it would be very interesting to know how long back in (pre) history you would have to trace back approximately to find them.

      I know it’s only wikipedia but this link provides a reasonable overview of how the origins of the Tutsi have been viewed by scholars:
      Origins of Hutu and Tutsi

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  3. This page has offered very useful information. My sister went through DNA mapping using 23andme. When it got to step 5 and started churning out raw data I took the information and dumped it on Gedmatch. I was surprised to find on average about 5% of East African ancestry. This showed up consistently in the various databases on Gedmatch. However, now that the Ancestry Composition is complete on 23andme it only shows primarily West African ancestry and not a trace of East African ancestry. Why is there a discrepancy?

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  4. Thanks for your comment Andie! I’m intending to create a separate page on Gedmatch results shortly where i will go into greater detail. It’s perhaps telling already to know that West Africans themselves on Gedmatch also receive these minor East African scores and are not shown as “100% West African” even when all their known ancestors are in fact West African. It most likely reflects very ancient migrations across the continent. Similar to the way some haplogroups are widespread across various African regions and date back from sometimes tens of thousands years ago. You probably inherited these genes by way of West/Central African ancestors who already carried these markers in their own DNA. If it had been more recent 23andme would also have picked up on it. That is in case we’re talking about Northeast African/Nilotic ancestry. East African Bantu ancestry is trickier because of the way 23andme designed their referencepanel (using Bantu samples for their “West African” category).

    Basically it’s a question of which timeframe you’re using when taking your ancestry into consideration. The Ancestry Composition by 23andme was designed specifically to “reflect where your ancestors lived before the widespread migrations of the past few hundred years.“. While the various admixture calculators on Gedmatch seem to focus more on socalled deep ancestry which goes back not just centuries but even many millennia in some cases. In fact despite their statement sometimes 23andme’s results still also seem to suggest ancient ancestral connections but generally they would be more informative of your ancestry within the last 500 years or so and the Gedmatch calculators could reflect ancient migrations from more than 5000 years ago.

    If you’re wishing to know where your African ancestors who survived the Middle Passage hail from, i’d say the timeframe used by 23andme is the most appropriate one.

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  5. Do you have the Gedmatch results of any of the other East Africans featured in this post, but especially the Rwandans. Ps. I am the 3rd Rwandan listed, and just to clarify, I am 3/4th Tutsi and 1/4th Hutu. I recently got my Gedmatch results back and I would describe my genetic ancestry as 55% South Cushitic, 40% Bantu, and 5% East African hunter-gatherer (so something similar to the Hadze and Sandawe). Tutsis are therefore probably 65% South Cushitic, 30% Bantu, and 5% h&g, in comparison to Hutus at approximately ~80-85% Bantu.

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  6. Thanks a lot for clarifying your background and sharing those results! I intend to create a separate page with gedmatch results of Africans from various parts shortly.

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  7. I’m Somali and I got 48% east Africa 41% middle east 7% north Africa. This was on Ancestry. I am awaiting my 23andme results. I don’t think all Somali people have close to 100% Africa DNA.

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    • Your AncestryDNA results fall right in line with what i have seen sofar for 8 other Somali.

      Somali (n=8)

      Their socalled “Southeastern Bantu” region is of course mislabeled for Northeast Africans because unlike 23andme they lack reference populations from the Horn or Nilotic speakers. It’s a next-best outcome if you like. Ancestry’s analysis can still be informative though as long as you keep in mind this limitation and realize that an older timeframe is being suggested when they describe your origins. Probably going back thousands of years rather than centuries. This will be different on 23andme as they make an attempt to describe your ancestry within the last 500 years or so. Eventhough they don’t always succeed in this effort. See for example the results of Ethiopians and Kenyans. However for Somali 23andme does seem to deliver a reasonable job as strictly speaking within the last 500 years most Somali would indeed have exclusive origins from Northeast Africa safe for individuals who might still show minor recent admixture, mostly among coastal/trading communities i imagine (e.g. see results for Somali 7).

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  8. I don’t get…..what is East African? Is it a race like west Africans? Is Nilotics, Cushitic or some unknown race? This vague? I would like to know what East African is.

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    • Well it’s context dependent… Of course it is firstmost a geographical term. For genetic purposes i find personally that there’s more added value in distinguishing between Southeast Africa and Northeast Africa. In this way genetic affinity with Bantuspeaking populations can be separated from genetic affinity with Nilotic/Cushitic speaking populations. However most DNA testing companies tend to be a bit sloppy in this regard. It’s always advisable therefore to thoroughly inspect which reference populations are used for any self termed “East African” category. When it comes to 23andme just read closely what i wrote in the beginning of this page as well as this page.

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  9. I got my results from ancestry dna. I am African American and I got 12% southeastern bantu and 10% east african on gedmatch. I was looking to find info as I thought I would only have west african.

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    • Hi Khadijah, many AA’s have this question when they receive their results. If you carefully read this page as well as the commment section you will learn that the socalled “East African” label when used in DNA testing should always be critically scrutinized.

      When it comes to Gedmatch i am usually very sceptical about the socalled East African scores reported for African Americans and other Afro-Diasporans from the Americas. You have to keep in mind that actual West Africans also receive such scores and are not described as 100% “West African”. If not some fluke or misreading it most likely represents VERY ancient population migrations across the continent (going back millennia instead of centuries). Irrelevant from a genealogical perspective (last 500 years or so).

      When it comes to your “Southeastern Bantu” score on AncestryDNA , this component could actually (and most likely) have been inherited from Bantu speaking ancestors from Southwest Africa, in particular Angola but also surrounding countries. Northeast African origins are described by AncestryDNA as a combination of Southeast Bantu *and* North Africa *and* Middle East. If your results don’t show those last two components above trace level you can be almost positive you don’t have any recent or substantial connection with Northeast Africa. And instead it will be indeed Bantu speaking origins from Southern or rather Central Africa. As is also in line with plentiful historical documentation and cultural retention.

      https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/se-bantu-map1.jpg?w=869

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  10. I thought Tutsis were nilotic not cushitic nothing against the cushitic as I love the vulture but I was always told by my dad us Tutsis were nilotic with maybe some Arab blood

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    • At this stage nothing about these 23andme results is indicative of Tutsi’s being either predom. Nilotic or Cushitic in origin. Except perhaps their PCA position (see comment made on 25-03-2015). Keep in mind that both Maasai and Somali samples were used as reference populations 😉

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  11. I am Somali according to 23andme I have 97.6% SSA, 97.3% east African, 0,3% broadly sub-Saharan, 1.6% MNa North African. paternally hablogroup T, mtdna M1a1, why do I have high percentage of SSA, if my ancestry hablogroups T and mtdna M1 are not native to Africa?

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    • Thanks for your comment Ali!
      Firstly you have to keep in mind that the actual DNA contribution from your haplogroups will always be minor (<1% if i 'm not mistaken). This is because the first persons carrying your haplogroups usually lived thousands of years ago. Sometimes haplogroups can indeed be indicative and corresponding with predominant ancestral lineage but not per se so. For example i know several African Americans who have non-African haplogroups (both maternal & paternal) yet are predom. African in their autosomal genetics.

      Secondly your socalled SSA % on 23andme is inclusive of Northeast African origins. This is because 23andme aims at describing your ancestry in a genealogically meaningful timeframe (within the last 500 years or so). However other DNA testing companies, such as Ancestry.com, as well as Gedmatch will typically describe the DNA make-up of Somali and other Northeast Africans with much lower SSA proportions. This is because they are also taking into account (very) ancient geneflow from West-Eurasia into Africa.

      For more details see:
      https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/dna-studies/
      https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/ancestrydna/african-results/north-east-african-results/
      http://anthromadness.blogspot.nl/2015/07/horn-africans-mixture-between-east.html

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  12. Hello, recently acquired AncestryDNA results from my mom’s side: 44% south eastern bantu; 13%North Africa and 37%West asia. I believed I was about 90% East African. I’m a bit distraught. I know Somalia is close to West Asia, however I have seen Somali results with almost 100% East African.

    Does this mean some Somalis refused to mix..or they were left alone….and some came into contact with West Asians?

    GEDMATCH provided me with Natufian admixture of about 35%, so is the heritage from West asia pretty ancient and not recent?

    Basically I have been bragging to many people I am pure SSA African and now this DNA has made me question myself LOL.

    Help pls LOL.

    Disclosure-Both Parents are from Ogaden region and GEDMATCH provided large chunk of ‘Omotic DNA,” maybe that affected my results.

    SomaliGal

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    • Hello Rox,

      This is a very common reaction when Somali or other East Africans receive their results. My short answer would be it’s all relative; ethnic identity is dependent on whichever perspective you take: cultural, historical, linguistic etc. Outsider influences are inevitable as no modernday human population has ever lived in complete isolation of neighbouring ones for an indefinite period. When it comes to genetics especially the timeframing is essential. Are you measuring admixture from only a few generations ago or rather from many thousands years ago when the Somali identity might not even have existed yet?

      You did your DNA test with AncestryDNA but this page features testresults from 23andme which is not directly comparable. You have to keep in mind that each different DNA testing company will provide you with a different description of your ancestral origins. Because each company uses a different database of reference populations to compare your own DNA with, plus they may also apply different algorithms when calculating their estimates. Also the implied timeframe will be different. On AncestryDNA it is indeed pretty ancient admixture which is being reflected in your results, often thousands of years ago. 23andme on the other hand attempts to describe your ancestry within the last 500 years or so.

      The 90%-100% East African scores you have seen were from people who tested on 23andme, if you were to test with this company undoubtedly you will obtain a similar result. As described on this page 23andme uses East African samples, incl. Somali, in order to calculate their results. On AncestryDNA however they only have Kenyan samples which together with samples from Namibia and South Africa make up their socalled “Southeastern Bantu” region. Not to be taken literally of course because any score for this region only measures genetic *similarity* to these samples rather than actual descent!

      When it comes to your AncestryDNA results they fall right in line with what i have seen sofar for 20 other Somali. The group average for SE Bantu being 43,8%, Africa North 11,1% and Middle East 37,7%. So nothing out of the ordinary for you 🙂 Ancestry’s socalled “Southeastern Bantu” region is of course mislabeled for Northeast Africans because unlike 23andme they lack reference populations from the Horn or Nilotic speakers. It’s a next-best outcome if you like. Unless you have family traditions suggesting otherwise practically the entire socalled Middle East amount will in all likelyhood be an ancient ancestral component which has been present in the Somali genepool right from the start. I imagine if you did indeed happen to have let’s say 1 Saudi grandparent this would show up in your results as a clearly more pronounced Middle East score than the group average of 37,7%. Also your closest DNA matches would probably already be indicative, even if there are not that many West Asians yet in Ancestry’s customer database.

      Ancestry’s analysis can still be informative as long as you keep in mind these limitations and realize that an older timeframe is being suggested when they describe your origins. Probably going back thousands of years rather than centuries. Again it is all about whichever perspective you want to prefer.

      For more details see:

      Northeast African AncestryDNA results
      Horn Africans: A mixture between East Africans & West Eurasians

      Also this video might be helpful.

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  13. Hey…something that would be dope if you could get back to me, considering I think I have both Luyha and Luo ancestry (Im an east african coloured) but haven’t done a test yet. Why did the Luo individual above score 98% West African, when Luos are Nilotic people..surely they would genetically have most similarity with 23andme’s Maasai sample? And in regards to Luyhas…even though they are a Bantu speaking people presently, do geneticists consider them more Niger-Congo as in typically West African peoples? Thank you.

    Like

    • Interesting background! The important thing to keep in mind when interpreting these 23andme results is which samples have been used to define either “East Africa” or “West Africa”. Below is an overview of the samples which 23andme currently uses for their West Africa category. You can see that Luhya samples are being included, which means that 23andme will read this part of your DNA as “West African”, which is of course totally mislabeled. But apparently 23andme felt the need to keep their “East Africa” category more so Northeast African (Cushitic/Nilotic) orientated.

      In addition also unspecified Bantu samples are being included from the HGDP database. This will also include some further Kenyan samples (see this overview). I am not aware of their ethnic background but i suspect that they might be atleast partially also of Nilotic descent despite being labeled Bantu. I cannot be sure of course but I suppose this might explain why also the Luo individual received such a high “West Africa” score. It’s merely a reflection of his genetic similarity to the Kenyan samples presently included in the West Africa category by 23andme. Recently i heard about a Ugandan person taking the 23andme test and he also likewise received a very high West Africa score (96%) which understandably took him by complete surprise…

      In case you’re considering which test to take i would say AncestryDNA will do a better job at describing your Kenyan DNA at this moment. Despite a similar case of potentially misleading labeling their socalled “Southeastern Bantu” and “Cameroon/Congo” regions are much better equipped to separate East African Bantu ancestry from West African ancestry. Obviously you might also want to keep other things in mind when deciding on which test to take (haplogroup testing, DNA matches , health reports etc.). See this page for East African AncestryDNA results.

      About the Luhyas and their genetic classification, it really depends on which other populations they are being compared to. However if you google for it you will find several studies analyzing their autosomal DNA. As they have been sampled (LWK) by the 1000 Genomes Project. For a very recent paper follow the link below (in particular see p.27):

      Genomic evidence for population specific selection in Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo linguistic groups in Africa

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      • Wow thank you for such a detailed response Fonte, really appreciate it. Since my original comment I’ve been doing a lot of reading, based off of academic work and some of those [ insidiously racist] anthropological blogs. It does make sense that a lot of it is based on samples and the company’s unique differentiation process. But just last week, or the week before a paper was published in which the authors basically suggested that Luos are in fact 100% Mande (!) and Luyhas are perculiarly 40% Dinka (!) and 60% Mande based off of some modelling they did off of some ancient DNA samples (I’m still very much an amateur so you would understand the process much better than I). You would really think if anything that, it would be Luos who score 40% Dinka but nope, and Luyhas 100% Mande but nope. Wow. I mean these results have blown my mind, but I do realise they have to be taken with a pinch of salt…however it does confirm that the old-style European way of classifying ethnicity based on language group is still dubious and also is kind of crazy in regards to how little we still no about migrations across the continent. Thanks for your suggestions. Here’s the link to the research: http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)31008-5

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