Hispanic Americas

Disclaimers:

  • These charts are NOT meant to be taken as an absolute or definitive display of ethnic origins for modernday populations!
  • Ethnic labels given by Europeans do NOT per se reflect how the slaves would have self-identified themselves! (see this article for more discussion)
  • Take note of the sample size, time period, region and any other details given to familiarize yourself with the CONTEXT of the chart!
  • Even if limited in scope, valuable information can still be obtained if you look for the patterns!
  • Sorry for all the exclamation marks 😉 It’s just that i’ve seen these kind of charts being misinterpreted so many times, not only online but also by trained historians. Which is a shame really because misleading conclusions can easily be avoided if you just take these charts for what they are: a randomized subset of slaves who might provide us with extra clues about the ethnic composition of other slaves during a given time period and for a given place/region. All depending on how representative the samples might have been.

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General

Early Slave Trade Estimates (1500’s/1600’s) & Upper Guinean origins specified
For more details read “Shared Upper Guinean roots between Cape Verdeans and Latin Americans

Projceted contribution of African regions and Ethnic Groups to the Transatlantic slave trade 1526-1550

Taken from “The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census” (Curtin, 1969)

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wheat veracruz, cartagena

THE AFRO-PORTUGUESE MARITIME WORLD AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF SPANISH CARIBBEAN SOCIETY, 1570-1640 (D. Wheat 2009)

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S. Buehnen -  Samples of Upper Guinean slaves

S. Buehnen – Samples of Upper Guinean slaves

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Toby Green Origins of Slaves 1547-1560

“The Rise of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in Western Africa, 1300–1589” (Toby Green, 2012).

***(click to enlarge)

Toby Green Origins of Slaves 1560-1600

“The Rise of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in Western Africa, 1300–1589” (Toby Green, 2012).

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Slave Trade Estimates (1700’s/1800’s)
For more details read  “African origins of Hispanic Caribbeans according to DNA studies“s

Estimated Slave Imports into Spanish Americas during the entire slave trade period

Taken from “The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census” (Curtin, 1969)

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Estimated Slave Imports into Spanish Americas 1774-1807 by area1

Taken from “The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census” (Curtin, 1969)

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Colombia

Early slave trade to Cartagena (1570’s-1630’s)
For more details read  “Documented African Roots of Dominicans

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D. Wheat (2009) - Figure 2.3 Waves of Captives Disembarked in Cartagena by African Regions of Departure, 1570-1640, by Decade

THE AFRO-PORTUGUESE MARITIME WORLD AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF SPANISH CARIBBEAN SOCIETY, 1570-1640 (D. Wheat 2009)

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Cuba

African origins 1570-1610 & 1790-1880
For more details read  “African origins of Hispanic Caribbeans according to DNA studies

Havanna & the Atlantic p.41 (Origin of Slaves)

Havana and the Atlantic in the Sixteenth Century ( A. de la Fuente, 2008)

 

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Havanna

Havana and the Atlantic in the Sixteenth Century ( A. de la Fuente, 2008)

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Cuban slave market 1790-1880

“The Cuban Slave Market, 1790-1880″ (Bergad et al., 1995)

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African origins captives onboard slave ship sailing from Cape Verde to Cuba (1572)
For more details read  “Documented African Roots of Dominicans

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San Pedro (1572)

A Luso-African Model for the Social History of the Spanish Caribbean, c. 1570-1640 (Wheat, 2010)

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Dominican Republic

African origins 1547-1606 & 1591-1821
For more details read  “Documented African Roots of Dominicans

Deive - DR Slave Ethnicities 1547-1606

“La esclavitud del negro en Santo Domingo: (1492-1844)” (Deive, 1980)

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Deive - DR Slave Ethnicities 1591-1821

“La esclavitud del negro en Santo Domingo: (1492-1844)” (Deive, 1980)

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Mexico

curtin mexico

Taken from “The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census” (Curtin, 1969)

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Peru

curtin peru

Taken from “The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census” (Curtin, 1969)

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Puerto Rico

African origins 1500’s
For more details read  “African origins of Hispanic Caribbeans according to DNA studies

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Etnias Africanas PR 1500's

Sued Badillo, Jalil; López Canto, Angel (1986), Puerto Rico Negro.

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