Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856 (part 2)

Origins from across Upper Guinea, not just from Guinea Bissau

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Map of Upper Guinea, western Mali should also be included for ancestral purposes

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Bissau, Cacheu, Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856

REGIONAL ORIGINS (combined)

Total ethnically specified: 1,615
Guinea Bissau’s Coastal Zone: 843 (52% of ethnically specified)
Upper Guinea Interior: 670  (42% of ethnically specified)
Senegal, Guinea & Sierra Leone: 102 (6% of ethnically specified)

TOP 3 ETHNIC ORIGINS (combined)

Mandinga (Upper Guinea) 262 – 16% of ethnically specified
Tilibonca (Upper Guinea) 229 – 14% of ethnically specified
Bijago (Guiné Bissau) 226 – 14% of ethnically specified
Source: Hawthorne (2003)

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In the first part of this blogpost i already discussed the main Guinean Bissau origins for Cape Verde according to its 1856 slave census, in this second part i will continue exploring origins outside of Guiné Bissau. When asked about their mainland African roots many Cape Verdeans might assume they only have ancestry coming from Guiné Bissau, this is however not completely true. It’s indeed correct that Guiné Bissau shares a very long and intimate history with Cape Verde. Both countries being ex-Portuguese colonies, united in their independence struggle during the 1970’s. Because of ever increasing English and French encroachment the formal Portuguese influence area within Upper Guinea during the 1600’s was already pretty much confined to modernday Guiné Bissau and Casamance (a region in southern Senegal which only was ceded to the French in 1888 and where a Portuguese-based Creole is still being spoken!).

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Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856 (part 1)

40-anos-da-Independância-de-Cabo-Verde-Unilab-550x275

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Cape Verde, an independent country since July 5th 1975!
Cape Verdeans: an indomitable people for more than 500 years!

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Cape Verde Slave Census of 1856

SUMMARY

Number of slaves 5,182
Creole (i.e. born in Cape Verde) 4,266 (82% of total)
African (mainland) 867 (17% of total)
African specified ethnically 130 (2,5% of total)

TOP 3 BREAKDOWN OF AFRICAN BORN SLAVES

Mandinga (Upper Guinea) 34 – 26% of African specified
Fula (Upper Guinea) 19 – 15% of African specified
Bijago (Guiné Bissau) 18 – 14% of African specified
Source: Carreira (1972)

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Antigua’s African Origins According To Moravian Church Records

Antiguans in Moravian Church Records 1757-1833 

Rebecca Protten (1718-1780), Moravian born in Antigua, she travelled back to Africa (Ghana) for missionary work.

SUMMARY

Number of (ex)slaves 11,180
Creole (i.e. locally born ) 7,925 (71% of total)
African 3,255 (29% of total)
African specified 2,914 (26% of total)

BREAKDOWN OF AFRICAN BORN (EX)SLAVES

Igbo (Nigeria) 894 – 31% of African specified
Kongo (Congo) 427 – 15% of African specified
Coromantee (Ghana) 390 – 13% of African specified
Source

The biggest documented source of African ethnicity among Antiguans doesn’t come from the official slave registers kept in between 1817-1832 because regrettably no records of country of birth were made then unlike the ones discussed already for Trinidad, Berbice, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts & Anguilla (see this overview). Rather it’s the Moravian Church records which Lees verder

St. Kitts & Anguilla Slave Census, least informative of African roots?

Saint Kitts Slave Census of 1817

SUMMARY

Number of slaves 20,168
Creole (i.e. born in the Americas) 16,928 (84% of total)
African 3,240 (16% of total)
African specified ethnically/regionally 2,886 (14% of total)

TOP 3 BREAKDOWN OF AFRICAN BORN SLAVES

Kongo (Congo) 1,337 – 46% of African specified
Mandingo (Upper Guinea) 510 – 18% of African specified
Igbo (Nigeria) 440 – 15% of African specified
Source

Origins of African-born slaves St Litts 1817

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St. Lucia Slave Census of 1815 , reflecting English or French Slave Trade Patterns?

Saint Lucia Slave Census of 1815

SUMMARY

Number of slaves 16,282
Creole (i.e. born in the Americas) 12,750 (78% of total)
African 3,488 (21% of total)
African specified ethnically/regionally 2,638 (16% of total)

BREAKDOWN OF AFRICAN BORN SLAVES

Ibo (Nigeria) 894 – 34% of African specified
Congo (Congo) 574 – 22% of African specified
Moco (Nigeria/Cameroon) 291 – 11% of African specified
Source

Origins of African-born slaves St Lucia 1815

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Guyanese Slave Census of 1819 , less specified but still representative?

Berbice (Guyana) Slave Census of 1819

SUMMARY

Number of slaves 23,881
Creole (i.e. born in the Americas) 10,954 (46% of total)
African 12,867 (54% of total)
African specified ethnically/regionally 1,198 (5% of total)

BREAKDOWN OF AFRICAN BORN SLAVES

Kongo (Congo) 212 – 18% of African specified
Coromantee (Ghana) 139 – 12% of African specified
Popo (Benin/Togo) 113 – 9% of African specified
Source

Origins of African-born slaves Berbice 1819 Lees verder

Trinidad’s Slave Census of 1813 – Representative of African Ethnic Origins?

Trinidad Slave Census of 1813

SUMMARY

Number of slaves 25,696
Creole (i.e born in the West Indies) 11,633 (45% of total)
African 13,984 (54% of total)
African specified ethnically/regionally 13,391 (52% of total)

BREAKDOWN OF AFRICAN BORN SLAVES

Ibo (Nigeria) 2,861 – 21% of African specified
Congo (Congo) 2,449 – 18% of African specified
Moco (Nigeria/Cameroon) 2,234 – 17% of African specified
Source

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Origins of African-born slaves Trinidad 1813

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Continue for complete census details

Krio from Sierra Leone: Afro-Diasporans with a twist?

The Krio people from Sierra Leone have a fascinating history and also very wideranging origins from West Africa, Central Africa and even Southeast Africa! Because of their mixed African lineages they are not very different from their distant African American and West Indian cousins and might therefore be considered Afro-Diasporans, even though they happen to be living in Africa.

krio-sierra-leone

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“The Sierra Leone Creole people (or Krio people) are an ethnic group in Sierra Leone. They are the descendants of freed African American, West Indian and Liberated African slaves who settled in the Western Area of Sierra Leone between 1787 and about 1885. The colony was established by the British, supported by abolitionists, as a place for freedmen. The settlers called their new settlement Freetown. Today, the Krio comprise about 4% of the population of Sierra Leone”  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Leone_Creole_people

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