Jamaican maternal lineages trace back mostly to Ghana?



“In line with previous findings, the matriline of Jamaica is almost entirely of West African descent. Results from the admixture analyses suggest modern Jamaicans share a closer affinity with groups from the Gold Coast and Bight of Benin despite high mortality, low fecundity, and waning regional importation. The slaves from the Bight of Biafra and West-central Africa were imported in great numbers; however, the results suggest a deficit in expected maternal contribution from those regions.” (Deason et al., 2012)

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From African to Creole


In the previous post I already discussed the following:

  • Creole” can mean many more things than just referring to Louisiana Creoles.
  • Cape Verdean Creoles/Crioulos are probably the historically oldest self-identified Creole population in the world.
  • In the colonial era the term “Creole” was also used to distinguish between African born slaves and locally born (within the European ruled colonies) slaves.
  • The dating of the socalled Creolization process/transition is fundamental for tracing back African ethnic roots.

I will continue this discussion but in this post I will apply it more generally for Afro-descendants in the Americas and in more detail for African Americans. Continue reading

From Creole to African

Nos tud nos é criol


Cape Verde football team participating in Africa Cup 2013

“Ethnic groups of Cape Verde:
Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%”
Source: CIA Factbook,


“Statistics from Portuguese administration in the sixties stated that the racial composition of the inhabitants was 71% of mestiços, 28% of “Africans” (i.e. blacks) and 1% of “Europeans” (i.e. whites). Those figures have been overused in several sites, in spite of not being up to date [and misleading]. Since the independence in 1975 the official statistics in Cape Verde have no longer made statistics based on racial groups. Official sources[1] only states “the majority of the population is mulatto” (“…maioritariamente mestiça…”) without stating any number. Ethnically, Cape Verdeans see themselves as a single group, regardless of being mulatto, black or white.” (Wikipedia)

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Krio from Sierra Leone: Afro-Diasporans with a twist?

The Krio people from Sierra Leone have a fascinating history and also very wideranging origins from West Africa, Central Africa and even Southeast Africa! Because of their mixed African lineages they are not very different from their distant African American and West Indian cousins and might therefore be considered Afro-Diasporans, even though they happen to be living in Africa.



“The Sierra Leone Creole people (or Krio people) are an ethnic group in Sierra Leone. They are the descendants of freed African American, West Indian and Liberated African slaves who settled in the Western Area of Sierra Leone between 1787 and about 1885. The colony was established by the British, supported by abolitionists, as a place for freedmen. The settlers called their new settlement Freetown. Today, the Krio comprise about 4% of the population of Sierra Leone”  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Leone_Creole_people


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